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Prospectus for the PhD Track in Religion and Science through the Graduate Division of Religious Studies at Boston University
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Contents | Rationale for Exam 1 | Reading List for Exam 1

Exam 1: Philosophy of Science


Rationale for Exam 1

1a. Overview of History of Science

1b. Overview of Philosophy of Science

1c. Overview of Religion and Science

Reading List for Exam 1 

1a. History of Science

1a(i) General
1a(ii) Ancient and Medieval
1a(iii) 1500-1800
1a(iv) 1800-Present

1b. Philosophy of Science

1b(i) Contemporary philosophy of science
1b(ii) Contemporary philosophy of special sciences
1b(iii) Western literature on the philosophy of nature and philosophical cosmology
1b(iv) Non-western literature on the philosophy of nature and philosophical cosmology

Rationale for Exam 1: Philosophy of Science

The aim of this examination is to assess a candidate’s competence in the history and philosophy of science, including science-and-religion interactions. The focus of the exam is easy to name in this way but hard to stabilize given the complexity and size of the surrounding literatures. The exam has two sub-foci.

1a. Overview of History of Science

This portion of the exam covers what the track faculty takes to be the most salient issues and events in the western history of science-and-religion relations. Standard literature in western history of science is well covered and literature in the western history of science-and-religion interactions is incorporated where it exists. The list uses a convenient periodization, resulting in the following subsections:

  • 1a(i) General
  • 1a(ii) Ancient and Medieval
  • 1a(iii) 1500-1800
  • 1a(iv) 1800-1900
  • 1a(v) 1900-Present

Relevant courses: Jon Roberts teaches several courses that are especially apt for preparing for this part of the exam.

1b. Overview of Philosophy of Science

This portion of the exam covers what the track faculty takes to be the most salient issues in debates over the philosophy of science and the philosophy of nature. We think of twentieth-century philosophy of science as a species of post-Kantian (and so epistemologically focused) and possibly post-Positivist reaction to the wider intellectual quest for an adequate philosophy of nature. As such, this portion of the exam list includes the following subsections.

  • 1b(i) Standard literature in contemporary philosophy of science.
  • 1b(ii) Standard literature in contemporary philosophy of special sciences (physics, biology, psychology, and sociology).
  • 1b(iii) A focused selection of literature on western debates over the philosophy of nature and philosophical cosmology.
  • 1b(iv) A selection of literature on non-western debates over the philosophy of nature and philosophical cosmology.

Relevant courses: Alisa Bokulich offers courses covering basic philosophy of science that are directly relevant for preparing the reading list for this exam.

Reading List for Exam 1: Philosophy of Science

The two (polite) attitudes to a reading list are “it is all required so read everything on the list” and “it is a guide to the literature on which you must have a solid grasp so read wisely within the list.” These are called the “Read comprehensively” and the “Read judiciously” attitudes in what follows. These two attitudes are relevant in different places, as noted at the beginning of each section, below.


God and Nature. Lindberg, David C.; Numbers, Ronald L.; eds. God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.

1a. History of Science

The following list is probably too comprehensive to be read in its entirety by students not specializing in the history of the relationship between science and the Judeo-Christian tradition. Students should therefore read with the intention of familarizing themselves with the major issues associated with that history. It is also worth remembering that the questions that appear in the examination in this field characteristically center around historical problems rather than historiography, e.g., with the issues associated with the Galileo affair rather than the theses of secondary works dealing that affair. In other words, read judiciously. That said, in this field as in every other, the more one knows, the better!

1a(i) General

John Hedley Brooke, Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991)

John Brooke and Geoffrey Cantor, Reconstructing Nature: The Engagement of Science and Religion (1998; New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)

John Hedley Brooke and Ronald L. Numbers, eds., Science and Religion Around the World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Philip Clayton and Zachary Simpson, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Thomas Dixon, From Passions to Emotions: The Creation of a Secular Psychological Category (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)

Thomas Dixon, et al., Science and Religion: New Historical Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Noah J. Efron, Judaism and Science: A Historical Introduction (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007)

Gary B. Ferngren, ed. The History of Science and Religion in the Western Tradition: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing Company, 2000)

Thomas F. Gieryn, “Boundary-Work and the Demarcation of Science from Non-Science: Strains and Interests in Professional Ideologies of Scientists,” American Sociological Review 48 (1983), 781-795

Anne Harrington, The Cure Within: A History of Mind-Body Medicine (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2008)

Peter Harrison, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Science and Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Peter Harrison, “‘Science’ and ‘Religion’: Constructing the Boundaries," Journal of Religion 86 (2006), 81-106

Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2d ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970)

David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers, eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986)

David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers, eds., When Science and Christianity Meet (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003)

David N. Livingstone, et al., eds., Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999)

Raymond Martin and John Barresi, The Rise and Fall of Soul and Self: An Intellectual History of Personal Identity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006)

Ronald L. Numbers, ed., Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths About Science and Religion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009)

Ronald L. Numbers and Darrell W. Amundsen, eds., Caring and Curing: Health and Medicine in the Western Religious Traditions (New York: Macmillan, 1986)

R. C. Olby, et al., eds., Companion to the History of Modern Science (New York: Routledge, 1990)

Richard Olson, Science Deified & Science Defied, 2 vols. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982, 1990)

James D. Proctor, ed., Science, Religion, and the Human Experience (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)

W. Mark Richardson and Wesley J. Wildman, ed., Religion and Science: History, Method, Dialogue (New York: Routledge, 1996)

Jon H. Roberts, “Science and Religion,” in Wrestling with Nature: From Omens to Science, ed. Peter Harrison, Ronald L. Numbers, and Michael Shank (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 253-279

Martin Rudwick, "Senses of the Natural World and Senses of God: Another Look at the Historical Relation of Science and Religion," in The Sciences and Theology in the Twentieth Century, ed. A. R. Peacocke (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981), 241-261

1a(ii) Ancient and Medieval

Darrel W. Amundsen, Medicine, Society, and Faith in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996)

M. D. Chenu, Nature, Man, and Society in the Twelfth Century: Essays on New Theological Perspectives in the Latin West, Trans. Jerome Tayor and Lester K. Little (1957; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968),1-49

William J. Courtenay, “Nature and the Natural in Twelfth-Century Thought,” in William J. Courtenay, Covenant and Causality in Medieval Thought (London: Variorum, 1984), ch. 3

Lorraine Daston and Katharine Park, Wonders and the Order of Nature 1150-1750 (New York: Zone Books, 1998)

Stephen Gaukroger, The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1210-1685 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Edward Grant, God and Reason in the Middle Ages (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Edward Grant, Science and Religion, 400 B.C. to A.D. 1550: From Aristotle to Copernicus (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004)

David C. Lindberg, The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992)

David C. Lindberg, “Medieval Science and Its Religious Context,” Osiris, n. s., 10 (1995), 61-79

G. E. R. Lloyd, Early Greek Science: Thales to Aristotle (London: Chatto & Windus, 1973)

G. E. R. Lloyd, Greek Science After Aristotle (London: Chatto & Windus, 1973)

G. E. R. Lloyd, Magic, Reason and Experience: Studies in the Origins and Development of Greek Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979)

Stephen C. McCluskey, Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

A. I. Sabra, “The Appropriation and Subsequent Naturalization of Greek Science in Medieval Islam: A Preliminary Statement,” History of Science 25 (1987), 223-243

A. I. Sabra, “The Scientific Enterprise,” in Islam and the Arab World, ed. Bernard Lewis (New York: Knopf, 1976), 181-192

James A. Weisheipl, “The Nature, Scope, and Classification of the Sciences,” in Science in the Middle Ages, ed. David C. Lindberg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 461-482

1a(iii) 1500-1800

Richard J. Blackwell, Galileo, Bellarmine, and the Bible (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991)

Michael J. Buckley, At the Origins of Modern Atheism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987)

William E. Burns, An Age of Wonders: Prodigies, Politics and Providence in England, 1657-1727 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002)

E. A. Burtt, The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science, rev. ed. (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: 1980)

William Clark, et al., eds., The Sciences in Enlightened Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999)

Annibale Fantoli, Galileo: For Copernicanism and for the Church, 2d ed. (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1996)

Rivka Feldhay, Galileo and the Church: Political Inquisition or Critical Dialogue? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Maurice A. Finocchiaro, ed., The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1989)

Maurice A. Finocchiaro, Retrying Galileo, 1633-1992 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005)

Amos Funkenstein, Theology and the Scientific Imagination from the Middle Ages to the Seventeenth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986)

John Gascoigne, Cambridge in the Age of Enlightenment: Science, Religion and Politics from the Restoration to the French Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)

Stephen Gaukroger, The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010)

Stephen Gaukroger, The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1210-1685 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006) [H]

Sara Schechner Genuth, Comets, Popular Culture, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997)

Clarence J. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967), chs. 8, 11, 14

Francis C. Haber, The Age of the World: Moses to Darwin (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1959)

Peter Harrison, The Bible, Protestantism, and the Rise of Natural Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

Peter Harrison, The Fall of Man and the Foundations of Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

J. L. Heilbron, Galileo (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010)

J. L. Heilbron, The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar Observatories (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999)

Gerald Holton, “Johannes Kepler’s Universe: Its Physics and Metaphysics,” in Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973), 69-90

Kenneth J. Howell, God’s Two Books: Copernican Cosmology and Biblical Interpretation in Early Modern Science (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002)

Michael Hunter, Boyle: Between God and Science (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009)

Margaret C. Jacob, The Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988)

Margaret C. Jacob, The Newtonians and the English Revolution, 1689-1720 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976)

Paul H. Kocher, Science and Religion in Elizabethan England (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1953)

Alexandre Koyré, From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1957)

David Kubrin, “Newton and the Cyclical Cosmos: Providence and the Mechanical Philosophy,” Journal of the History of Ideas 28 (1967), 325-346

Thomas S. Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957)

Sachiko Kusukawa, The Transformation of Natural Philosophy: The Case of Philip Melanchthon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Herbert Leventhal, In the Shadow of Enlightenment: Occultism and Renaissance Science in Eighteenth-Century America (New York: New York University Press, 1976)

David C. Lindberg and Robert S. Westman, eds., Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), essays by David C. Lindberg, Ernan McMullin, Gary Hatfield, Brian P. Copenhaver, William B.Ahsworth, Michael Hunter, Alan Gabbey

Ernan McMullin, ed., The Church and Galileo (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005)

Frank E. Manuel, The Religion of Isaac Newton (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974)

Raymond Martin and John Barresi, Naturalization of the Soul (New York: Routledge, 2000)

Richard Olson, The Emergence of the Social Sciences, 1642-1792 (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1993)

Richard G. Olson, Science and Religion, 1450-1900: From Copernicus to Darwin (2004; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press)

Margaret J. Osler, Divine Will and the Mechanical Philosophy: Gassendi and Descartes on Contingency and Necessity in the Created World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)

Margaret J. Osler, “Mixing Metaphors: Science and Religion or Natural Philosophy and Theology in Early Modern Europe,” History of Science 36 (1998), 91-113

Margaret J. Osler, Reconfiguring the World: Nature, God, and Human Understanding from the Middle Ages to Early Modern Europe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010)

Terence Penelhum, Butler (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985)

Neal C. Gillespie, “Natural History, Natural Theology, and Social Order: John Ray and the ‘Newtonian Ideology,’” Journal of the History of Biology, 20 (1987), 1-49 [H]

John Redwood, Reason, Ridicule and Religion: The Age of Enlightenment in England, 1660-1750 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976)

Peter Hanns Reill, Vitalizing Nature in the Enlightenment (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005)

Shirley A. Roe, Matter, Life, and Generation: 18th-Century Embryology and the Haller-Wolff Debate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981)

Jacques Roger, The Life Sciences in Eighteenth-Century French Thought, ed. Keith R. Benson, trans. Robert Ellrich (1963; Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997)

Leonora Rosenfield, From Beast-Machine to Man-Machine: Animal Soul in French Letters from Descartes to La Mettrie, rev. ed. (New York: Octagon Books 1968)

Steven Shapin, The Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996)

Steven Shapin, A Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994)

Barbara J. Shapiro, A Culture of Fact: England, 1550-1720 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000)

Barbara J. Shapiro, Probability and Certainty in Seventeenth-Century England: A Study of the Relationships between Natural Science, Religion, History, Law and Literature (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983)

John S. Spink, French Free-thought from Gassendi to Voltaire (London: Athlone Press, 1960)

Keith Thomas, Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England, 1500-1800 (1983; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)

Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (1983; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)

Ann Thomson, Bodies of Thought: Science, Religion, and the Soul in the Early Enlightenment (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008)

John E. Van de Wetering, “God, Science, and the Puritan Dilemma,” New England Quarterly 38 (1965), 494-507

Maxine Van de Wetering, "Moralizing in Puritan Natural Science: Mysteriousness in Earthquake Sermons," Journal of the History of Ideas 43 (1982), 417-438

Maxine Van de Wetering, "A Reconsideration of the Inoculation Controversy," New England Quarterly 58 (1985), 46-67

Aram Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes: A Study of Scientific Naturalism in the Enlightenment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953)

Alexandra Walsham, Providence in Early Modern England (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999)

Richard S. Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980)

Richard S. Westfall, Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958)

Robert S. Westman, The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Scepticism, and Celestial Order (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2011)

Michael P. Winship, Seers of God: Puritan Providentialism in the Restoration and Early Enlightenment (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996)

Frances A. Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964)

John W. Yolton, The Two Intellectual Worlds of John Locke: Man, Person, and Spirits in the Essay (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004)

1a(iv) 1800-present

R. Scott Appleby, “Exposing Darwin’s ‘Hidden Agenda’: Roman Catholic Responses to Evolution, 1875-1925,” in Disseminating Darwinism: The Role of Place, Race, Religion, and Gender, ed. Ronald L. Numbers and John Stenhouse (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 173-208

Mariano Artigas, Thomas F. Glick, and Rafael A. Martínez, Negotiating Darwin: The Vatican Confronts Evolution, 1877-1902 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006)

William J. Astore, “Gentle Skeptics? American Catholic Encounters with Polygenism, Geology, and Evolutionary Theories from 1845 to 1875,” Catholic Historical Review 82 (1996), 40-76

John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), chs. 1-3

Peter J. Bowler, Evolution: the History of an Idea, 4th ed. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2009)

Peter J. Bowler, The Mendelian Revolution: The Emergence of Hereditarian Concepts in Modern Science and Society (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989)

Peter J. Bowler, The Non-Darwinian Revolution: Reinterpreting a Historical Myth (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988)

Peter J. Bowler, Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001)

Theodore Dwight Bozeman, Protestants in an Age of Science: The Baconian Ideal and Antebellum American Religious Thought (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977)

John Hedley Brooke, “Darwin and Victorian Christianity,” in The Cambridge Companion to Darwin, ed. Jonathan Hodge and Gregory Redick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 192-213

John Hedley Brooke, “The Relations Between Darwin’s Science and His Religion,” in Darwinism and Divinity: Essays on Evolution and Religious Belief, ed. John Durant (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985), 40-75

Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002)

Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: Voyaging; A Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995)

Richard W. Burkhardt, Jr., The Spirit of System: Lamarck and Evolutionary Biology (1977; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995)

John C. Burnham, “The Encounter of Christian Theology with Deterministic Psychology and Psychoanalysis,” Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 49 (1985), 321-352

Geoffrey Cantor and Marc Swetlitz, eds., Jewish Tradition and the Challenge of Darwinism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006)

Charles D. Cashdollar, The Transformation of Theology, 1830-1890: Positivism and Protestant Thought in Britain and America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989)

David Cassidy, Einstein and Our World (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995)

Constance Areson Clark, God--or Gorilla: Images of Evolution in the Jazz Age (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008)

Walter H. Conser, Jr., God and the Natural World: Religion and Science in Antebellum America (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1993) [H]

Deborah J. Coon, “Testing the Limits of Sense and Science: American Experimental Psychologists Combat Spiritualism, 1880-1920,” American Psychologist 47 (1992), 143-151

Roger Cooter, “Secular Methodism,” in Cooter, The Cultural Meaning of Popular Science: Phrenology and the Organization of Consent in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 169-198

Paul Jerome Croce, Science and Religion in the Era of William James: Volume 1, Eclipse of Certainty, 1820-1880 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995)

Heather D. Curtis, Faith in the Great Physician: Suffering and Divine Healing in American Culture, 1860-1900 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007)

Peter Allan Dale, In Pursuit of a Scientific Culture: Science, Art, and Society in the Victorian Age (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989)

Edward B. Davis, “Science and Religious Fundamentalism in the 1920s,” American Scientist 93 (2005), 253-260

Adrian Desmond, Huxley: From Devil’s Disciple to Evolution’s High Priest (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997)

Adrian Desmond, The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine, and Reform in Radical London (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989)

Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin: The Life of a Tormented Evolutionist (New York: Warner Books, 1991)

Elaine Howard Ecklund, Science vs. Religion: What Scientists Really Think (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010)

Alvar Ellegard, Darwin and the General Reader: The Reception of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution in the British Periodical Press, 1859-1872 (1958; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990)

Henri F. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry (New York: Basic Books, 1970)

John H. Evans, Contested Reproduction: Genetic Technologies, Religion, and Public Debate (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010)

John H. Evans, Playing God? Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationaliszation of Public Bioethical Debate (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002) [H]

Barbara Forrest and Paul R. Gross, Creationism’s Trojan Horse: The Wedge of Intelligent Design (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005) [

Robert C. Fuller, “American Psychology and the Religious Imagination,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 42 (2006), 221-235

Robert C. Fuller, Americans and the Unconscious (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986)

Robert C. Fuller, Mesmerism and the American Cure of Souls (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982)

Aileen Fyfe, Science and Salvation: Evangelical Popular Science Publishing in Victorian Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004)

Karl W. Giberson and Donald A. Yerxa, Species of Origins: America’s Search for a Creation Story (Lanham, MD: William B. Rowman and Littlefield, 2002)

James Gilbert, Redeeming Culture: American Religion in an Age of Science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997)

Neal C. Gillespie, Charles Darwin and the Problem of Creation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979) [H]

Neal C. Gillespie, “Preparing for Darwin: Conchology and Natural Theology in Anglo-American Natural History,” Studies in History of Biology 7 (1984), 93-145 [H]

Charles Coulston Gillispie, Genesis and Geology: The Impact of Scientific Discoveries Upon Religious Beliefs in the Decades Before Darwin (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1951)

Thomas F. Glick, ed., The Comparative Reception of Darwinism, rev ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988)

Stanley Goldberg, Understanding Relativity: Origin and Impact of a Scientific Revolution (Boston: Birkhäuser, 1984)

Frederick Gregory, Nature Lost? Natural Science and the German Theological Traditions of the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992)

Frederick Gregory, Scientific Materialism in Nineteenth Century Germany (Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1977)

Ruth Harris, Lourdes: Body and Spirit in the Secular Age (New York: Viking, 1999)

Jennifer Michael Hecht, The End of the Soul: Scientific Modernity, Atheism, and Anthropology in France (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003)

Andrew R. Heinze, Jews and the American Soul: Human Nature in the Twentieth Century (Princeton University Press, 2004)

E. Brooks Holifield, A History of Pastoral Care in America: From Salvation to Self-Realization (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1983)

David A. Hollinger, “‘Damned for God’s Glory’: William James and the Scientific Vindication of Protestant Culture,” in William James and a Science of Religions: Reexperiencing The Varieties of Religious Experience, ed. Wayne Proudfoot (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004), 9-30

David A. Hollinger, “James, Clifford, and the Scientific Conscience,” in The Cambridge Companion to William James, ed. Ruth Anna Putnam (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 69-83

David A. Hollinger, “Jewish Intellectuals and the De-Christianization of American Public Culture in the Twentieth Century,” in Science, Jews, and Secular Culture: Studies in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Intellectual History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), 17-41

David A. Hollinger, “Justification by Verification: The Scientific Challenge to the Moral Authority of Christianity in Modern America,” in Religion and Twentieth-Century American Intellectual Life, ed. Michael J. Lacey (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 116-135

Gerald Holton, “The Roots of Complementarity,” in Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973), 115-161

Max Jammer, Einstein and Religion: Physics and Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999)

Howard L. Kaye, The Social Meaning of Modern Biology (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986)

David Kohn, “Darwin’s Ambiguity: The Secularization of Biological Meaning,” British Journal for the History of Science 22 (1989), 215-239

David Kohn, ed., The Darwinian Heritage (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985)

Helge Kragh, Matter and Spirit in the Universe: Scientific and Religious Preludes to Modern Cosmology (London: Imperial College Press, 2004) [H]

Edward J. Larson, Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America’s Continuing Debate over Science and Religion (New York: Basic Books, 1997)

Edward J. Larson, Trial and Error: The American Controversy Over Creation and Evolution, 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)

D. L. LeMahieu, The Mind of William Paley: A Philosopher and His Age (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1976)

Timothy Lenoir, The Strategy of Life: Teleology and Mechanics in Nineteenth-Century German Biology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982)

Michael Lienesch, In the Beginning: Fundamentalism, the Scopes Trial, and the Making of the Antievolution Movement (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007)

David N. Livingstone, Adam’s Ancestors: Race, Religion, and the Politics of Human Origins (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008)

David N. Livingstone, “Preadamites: The History of an Idea from Heresy to Orthodoxy,” Scottish Journal of Theology, 40 (1987), 41-66

David N. Livingstone, “Science, Region, and Religion: The Reception of Darwinism in Princeton, Belfast, and Edinburgh,” in Disseminating Darwinism: The Role of Place, Race, Religion, and Gender, ed. Ronald L. Numbers and John Stenhouse (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 7-38

David N. Livingstone and Mark A. Noll, “B. B. Warfield (1851-1921): A Biblical Inerrantist as Evolutionist,” Isis 91 (2000), 283-304

Colleen McDannell, “Lourdes Water and American Catholicism,” in McDannell, Material Christianity: Religion and Popular Culture in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), 132-162

James R. Moore, ed., History, Humanity and Evolution: Essays for John C. Greene, ed. James R. Moore (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989) [Essays by Ludmilla Jordanova, James A. Secord, James R. Moore, Bernard Lightman, Paul Weindling, and Robert M. Young]

James R. Moore, The Post-Darwinian Controversies: A Study of the Protestant Struggle to Come to Terms with Darwin in Great Britain and America 1870-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979)

R. Laurence Moore, In Search of White Crows: Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977)

R. Laurence Moore, “Secularization: Religion and the Social Sciences,” in Between the Times: The Travail of the Protestant Establishment in America, 1900-1960, ed. William R. Hutchison (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 233-252

Jeffrey P. Moran, “Reading Race into the Scopes Trial: African American Elites, Science, and Fundamentalism,” Journal of American History 90 (2003), 891-911

Jeffrey P. Moran, “The Scopes Trial and Southern Fundamentalism in Black and White: Race, Region, and Religion,” Journal of Southern History 70 (2004), 95-120

Robert Bruce Mullin, Miracles and the Modern Religious Imagination (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996)

Fred Nadis, Wonder Shows: Performing Science, Magic, and Religion in America (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005)

Ronald L. Numbers, Creation by Natural Law: Laplace’s Nebular Hypothesis in American Thought (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977)

Ronald L. Numbers, The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design, expanded ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006)

Ronald L. Numbers, “Charles Hodge and the Beauties and Deformities of Science,” in Charles Hodge Revisited: A Critical Appraisal of His Life and Work, ed. John W. Stewart and James H. Moorhead (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2002), 77-101

Ronald L. Numbers, Darwinism Comes to America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998)

Ronald L. Numbers, Science and Christianity in Pulpit and Pew (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Ronald L. Numbers and Janet S. Numbers, “Millerism and Madness: A Study of ‘Religious Insanity in Nineteenth-Century America,” in The Disappointed: Millerism and Millenarianism in the Nineteenth Century, ed. Ronald L. Numbers and Jonathan M. Butler (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), 92-117

Ronald L. Numbers and Ronald C. Sawyer, “Medicine and Christianity in the Modern World,” in Health/Medicine and the Faith Traditions: An Inquiry into Religion and Medicine, ed. Martin E. Marty and Kenneth L. Vaux (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982), 133-160

Richard G. Olson, Science and Scientism in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2008)

Dov Ospovat, The Development of Darwin’s Theory: Natural History, Natural Theology, and Natural Selection, 1838-1859 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981)

Rick Ostrander, The Life of Prayer in a World of Science: Protestants, Prayer, and American Culture, 1870-1930 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)

Harry W. Paul, The Edge of Contingency: French Catholic Reaction to Scientific Change from Darwin to Duhem (Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1979)

Iain Paul, Science, Theology, and Einstein (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982)

Gregory R. Peterson, Minding God: Theology and the Cognitive Sciences (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003)

Albert J. Raboteau, “The Afro-American Traditions,” in Caring and Curing: health and Medicine in the Western Religious Traditions, ed. Ronald L. Numbers and Darrel W. Amundsen (New York: Macmillan, 1986), 539-562

Robert J. Richards, Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987)

Robert J. Richards, The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002)

Robert J. Richards, The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008)

Jon H. Roberts, “Conservative Evangelicals and Science Education in American Colleges and Universities, 1890-1940,” Journal of the Historical Society 5 (2005), 297-329

Jon H. Roberts, “Darwinism, American Protestant Thinkers, and the Puzzle of Motivation,” in The Reception of Darwin: The Role of Place, Race, and Religion, ed. Ronald L. Numbers and John Stenhouse (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 145-172

Jon H. Roberts, Darwinism and the Divine in America: Protestant Intellectuals and Organic Evolution, 1859-1900 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988)

Jon H. Roberts, "Louis Agassiz on Scientific Method, Polygenism, and Transmutation: A Reassessment,” Almagest: International Journal for the History of Scientific Ideas, 2, no. 1 (May 2011), 76-99

Jon H. Roberts and James Turner, The Sacred and the Secular University (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), chs. 1-2

Christine Rosen, Preaching Eugenics: Religious Leaders and the American Eugenics Movement (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Martin J. S. Rudwick, Bursting the Limits of Time: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005)

M. J. S. Rudwick, The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology (New York: American Elsevier, 1972)

Martin J. S. Rudwick, Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008)

Nicolaas A. Rupke, ed., Eminent Lives in Twentieth-Century Science and Religion (New York: Peter Lang, 2007)

Nicolaas A. Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology (1814-1849) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983)

Nicolaas A. Rupke, Richard Owen: Victorian Naturalist (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994)

Michael Ruse, The Darwinian Revolution: Science Red in Tooth and Claw (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979)

Michael Ruse, Darwinism and Its Discontents (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Rick Rylance, Victorian Psychology and British Culture, 1850-1880 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000)

Norbert M. Samuelson, ed., Jewish Faith and Modern Science: On the Death and Rebirth of Jewish Philosphy (Lnaham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008)

Rennie B. Schoepflin, “The Christian Science Tradition,” in Caring and Curing: health and Medicine in the Western Religious Traditions, ed. Ronald L. Numbers and Darrel W. Amundsen (New York: Macmillan, 1986), 421-446

James A. Secord, Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception and Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001)

Joel James Shuman and Keith G. Meador, Heal Thyself: Spirituality, Medicine, and the Distortion of Christianity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003)

Ross A. Slotten, The Heretic in Darwin’s Court: The Life of Alfred Russell Wallace (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004)

Crosbie Smith, The Science of Energy: A Cultural History of Energy Physics in Victorian Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998)

Matthew Stanley, Practical Mystic: Religion, Science, and A. S. Eddington (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)

Lester D. Stephens, Science, Race, and Religion in the American South: John Bachman and the Charleston Circle of Naturalists, 1815-1895 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000)

James E. Strick, Sparks of Life: Darwinism and the Victorian Debates Over Spontaneous Generation (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000)

Frank J. Sulloway, Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives (New York: Pantheon Books, 1996), ch. 10

Marc Swetlitz, “American Jewish Responses to Darwin and Evolutionary Theory, 1860-1890,” in Disseminating Darwinism: The Role of Place, Race, Religion, and Gender, ed. Ronald L. Numbers and John Stenhouse (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 209-246

Ronald C. Tobey, The American Ideology of National Science (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971), ch. 4

Jonathan R. Topham, "Beyond the 'Common Context': The Production and Reading of the Bridgewater Treatises," Isis 89 (1998), 233-262

Jonathan R. Topham, “Biology in the Service of Natural Theology: Paley, Darwin, and the Bridgewater Treatises,” in Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins, ed. Denis R. Alexander and Ronald L. Numbers (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 88-113

Jonathan Topham, "Science and Popular Education in the 1830s: The Role of the Bridgewater Treatises," British Journal for the History of Science 25 (1992), 397-430

Jonathan R. Topham, “Science, Natural Theology, and Evangelicalism in Early Nineteenth-Century Scotland: Thomas Chalmers and the Evidence Controversy,” in Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective, ed. David N. Livingstone, et al. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 142-174

Thomas R. Trautmann, “The Revolution in Ethnological Time,” Man, n.s., 27 (1992), 379-397

Frank Miller Turner, Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974)

Frank M. Turner, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993)

Frank M. Turner, “The Victorian Conflict between Science and Religion: A Professional Dimension,” Isis 69 (1978), 356-376

James Turner, Religion Enters the Academy: The Origins of the Scholarly Study of Religion in America (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011) [H]

James Turner, Without God, without Creed: The Origins of Unbelief in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985)

Ellen M. Umansky, From Christian Science to Jewish Science: Spiritual Healing and American Jews (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)

John van Wyhe, Phrenology and the Origins of Victorian Scientific Naturalism (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2004)

Christopher G. White, Unsettled Minds: Psychology and the American Search for Spiritual Assurance, 1830-1940 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2009)

Alison Winter, Mesmerized: Powers of Mind in Victorian Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998)

Robert M. Young, Darwin's Metaphor: Nature's Place in Victorian Culture (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985)

Robert Young, "The Historiographic and Ideological Contexts of the Nineteenth-Century Debate on Man's Place in Nature," in Changing Perspectives in the History of Science: Essays in Honor of Joseph Needham, ed. Mikulas Teich and Robert Young (London: Heinemann, 1973), 344-438

Robert M. Young, Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral Localization and Its Biological Context from Gall to Ferrier (1970; New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)

Robert M. Young, “Natural Theology, Victorian Periodicals and the Fragmentation of a Common Context,” in Darwin to Einstein: Historical Studies on Science and Belief, ed. Colin Chant and John Fauvel (New York: Longman, 1980), 69-107

Leila Zenderland, “Biblical Biology: American Protestant Social Reformers and the Early Eugenics Movement,” Science in Context 11 (1998), 511-525

1b. Philosophy of Science

The appropriate attitude here is “Read comprehensively.”

1b(i) Philosophy of science: Basics

Scientific Method and Change

Duhem, Pierre. The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1991. Part II: Chapters 4-7.

Feyerabend, Paul. Against Method. London: Verso, 1988.

Kuhn, Thomas. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Lakatos, Imre. "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes" in Lakatos and Musgrave (eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1970.

Laudan, Larry. “Demystifying Underdetermination,” in C. Wade Savage, ed, Scientific Theories. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.

_____. "Dissecting the Holist Picture of Scientific Change" in Science and Values: The Aims of Science and Their Role in Scientific Debate. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984, ch. 4.

McMullin, Ernan. "Rationality and Paradigm Change in Science" in Horwich (ed.) World Changes: Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993.

Popper, Karl. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. New York: Routledge, 1989. Chapter 1.

_____. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge, 1992. Chapters 1, 2 & 4.

Quine, Willard van Orman. "On Empirically Equivalent Systems of the World," Erkenntnis 9 (1975), pp. 313-28; or "Empirical Content" in Quine, Theories and Things (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Realism and Antirealism

Fine, A. "The Natural Ontological Attitude," in Boyd et al, The Philosophy of Science.

Hacking, Ian. Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.

McMullin, Ernan. "A Case for Scientific Realism" in Leplin (ed.) Scientific Realism. Berkeley: U of California Press, 1984.

Laudan, Larry. "A Confutation of Convergent Realism", Philosophy of Science 48 (1981): 19-49.

Objectivity, Values, and Feminist Critiques

Hanson, N. Patterns of Discovery: An Inquiry into the Conceptual Foundations of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958, ch. 1.

Kuhn, Thomas. "Objectivity, Value Judgment, and Theory Choice" in The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1977.

Longino, Helen. "Objectivity and Values" in Science as Social Knowledge. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1990. Chapter 4.

Scientific Explanation

van Fraassen, Bas. "The Pragmatics of Explanation" in The Scientific Image. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1980. Chapter 5.

Hempel, Carl. "Laws and Their Role in Scientific Explanation" in Philosophy of Natural Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1966. Chapter 5.

Kitcher, Philip. "Explanatory Unification", Philosophy of Science 48 (1981): pp. 507-531.

Salmon, Wesley. "Scientific Explanation" in Salmon et al. (eds.) Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999. Chapter 1.

Reductionism, Unity of Science, and Disunity of Science

Dupré, John. "Metaphysical Disorder and Scientific Disunity" in Galison and Stump (eds.) The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996: pp. 11-117.

Fodor, Jerry. "Special Sciences, or The Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis," Synthese 28 (1974): pp. 77-115. Reprinted in Boyd et al, The Philosophy of Science.

Nickles, Thomas. "Two Concepts of Intertheoretic Reduction", Journal of Philosophy 70 (1975): pp. 181-201.

Oppenheim, Paul and Hilary Putnam. "Unity of Science as a Working Hypothesis" in Feigl, Scriven and Maxwell (eds.) Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Volume II. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1958: pp. 3-36.

Laws, Causation, and Determinism

Ayer, A. J. "What is a Law of Nature?" Revue Internationale de Philosophie 36 (1956): pp. 144-165. Reprinted in The Concept of a Person. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1963: pp. 209-234.

Cartwright, Nancy. "Nomological Machines and the Laws They Produce" The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999. Chapter 3.

Dretske, Fred. "Laws of Nature" Philosophy of Science 44 (1977): pp. 248-268.

Earman, John. "Determinism in the Physical Sciences" in Salmon et al. (eds.) Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999. Chapter 6.

Giere, Ronald N. Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988, ch. 3, esp. pp. 90-1.

Lewis, David K. Counterfactuals. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1973, pp. 72-7.

Nagel, E. Structure of Science (London: RKP, 1961), ch. 4.

Emergence and Supervenience

Beckermann, Ansgar; Flohr, Hans; Kim, Jaegwon; eds. Emergence or Reduction? Essays on the Prospects of Nonreductive Physicalism. Berlin; New York: W. de Gruyter, 1992.

Holland, John H. Emergence: From Chaos to Order. Oxford UP, 2000.

Kauffman, Stuart A. At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Self-organization and Complexity. Oxford University Press, 1995.

_____. The Origins of Order: Self-organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford University Press, 1993.

Yates, F. Eugene; Garfinkel, Alan; Walter, Donald O.; Yates, Gregory B.; eds. Self-organizing Systems: The Emergence of Order. Plenum Press, 1987.

Blackburn, Simon. Essays in Quasi-Realism. Oxford University Press, 1993.

Kim, Jaegwon. "Psychophysical Supervenience," Philosophical Studies 41 (1982): 51-70.

_____. Supervenience and Mind: Selected Philosophical Essays. Cambridge University Press, 1993.

_____. "Supervenience and Nomological Incommensurables," American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (1978): 149-56.

Russell, Robert John, William R. Stoeger, S.J, and Francisco J. Ayala, eds. Evolutionary and Molecular Biology: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action. Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, 1998; chapters by Davies and Murphy.

Savellos, Elias, E.; Yalcin, Umit D. Supervenience: New Essays. Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Stich, Stephen. "Autonomous Psychology and the Belief-Desire Thesis," The Monist 61 (1978): 573-91.

For Information Only: Useful Sources of Articles

Boyd, R.; Gasper, P.; Trout, J. D.; eds. The Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.

Curd, Martin; Cover, J.A.; eds. The Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues. New York: W.W. Norton, 1998.

Papineau, David, ed. Philosophy of Science. Oxford Readings in Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Grayling, A. C, ed. Philosophy: A Guide through the Subject. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Suggestions for Further Reading (Not Required)

Barker, S.; Achinstein, P. "The New Riddle of Induction." PR (1960), pp. 511-22. For those interested in the problem of induction in application to the philosophy of science.

Churchland, Paul M. Scientific Realism and the Plasticity of Mind. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979, §§ 1-8.

Feyerabend, Paul. "Realism and Instrumentalism: Comments on the Logic of Factual Support," in Feyerabend, Realism, Rationalism and Scientific Method: Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Fodor, Jerry. "Observation Reconsidered," Philosophy of Science (1984), pp. 23-43. More on the debate of objectivity in science. See also, Churchland, P. "Perceptual Plasticity and Theoretical Neutrality: A Reply to Jerry Fodor," Philosophy of Science (1988), pp. 167-87.

Giere, Ronald N. Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. chs. 2, 3.

Gillies, Donald. Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes. Oxford, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1993. An serviceable overview with a good discussion of the theory-observation distinction in chs. 6, 7.

Goodman, Nelson. Fact, Fiction and Forecast. 4th ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983, chs. 3, 4.

Hempel, Carl. Philosophy of Natural Science. Read the rest.

_____. "Studies in the Logic of Confirmation, " esp. §§ 3-5; in Hempel, Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. New York: Free Press, 1970.

Hesse, Mary B. The Structure of Scientific Inference. London: Macmillan; Berkeley, University of California Press, 1974, chs. 2, 3.

Howson C.; Urbach, P. Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1989, ch. 4. A technical approach to the topic for those interested in probability.

Kuhn, T. "Commensurability, Comparability, Communicability," in Kuhn, The Road Since "Structure". Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Kyburg, Henry Ely. Probability and Inductive Logic. New York: Macmillan, 1970. Part 1, esp. ch. 2, includes a good introduction to the philosophy of probability.

Mackie, J. "The Paradox of Confirmation" British Journal of the Philosophy of Science 13 (1963), pp. 265-77.

Maxwell, G. "The Ontological Status of Theoretical Entities," in H. Feigl and G. Maxwell, eds, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science Vol. 3: Scientific Explanation, Space and Time. Minnesota UP, 1962, pp. 3-15.

Nagel, E. The Structure of Science: Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co, 1979 (1st ed, 1961). Early chs. have a lot of overlap with the Hempel and Salmon readings on the list but this is historically a very important work.

Popper, Karl. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Also read chs. 1, 2, 4.

_____. "Truth, Rationality, and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge," in his Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. London: SKP, 1963, 1989.

1b(ii) Philosophy of science: Special sciences

Suggestions for Further Reading (Not Required): Philosophy of Biology

Kitcher, P. "1953 and All That: A Tale of Two Sciences," in Boyd et al, The Philosophy of Science. A classic on philosophy of biology.

Suggestions for Further Reading (Not Required): Functional Explanation

Bennett, J. "Teleology," in Bennett, Linguistic Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Bigelow, J. and R. Pargetter. "Functions," JP 84 (1987), pp. 181-96.

Hempel, Carl. "The Logic of Functional Analysis," in Hempel, Aspects of Scientific Explanation: and other essays in the philosophy of science. London: Macmillan, 1970.

Millikan, R. "In Defense of Proper Functions," Philosophy of Science 56 (1989), pp. 288-302.

Nagel, Ernst. Structure of Science. London: RKP, 1961, pp. 401-28.

Wright, L. "Functions," PR 82 (1973), pp. 139-68.

1b(iii) Philosophy of science: Philosophy of nature and philosophical cosmology

Philosophic Classics

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan

Descartes, Rene. Discourse on Method.

_____. Meditations.

Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Spinoza, Baruch. Ethics

Leibniz, Gottfried. Discourse on Metaphysics.

_____. Monadology.

Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason.

Hegel, Georg. The Phenomenology of Spirit.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Nature.

Contemporary Classics in Philosophical Cosmology

Peirce, Charles S. [From The Essential Peirce, edited by Nathan Houser et alia (two volumes; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, 1998) or from the Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, edited by Hartshorne and Weiss (six volumes, Harvard University Press, 1931-35), or any of the other popular collections, the following papers:]

_____. "Questions Concerning Certain Faculties Claimed for Man"

_____. "Some Consequences of Four Incapacities"

_____. "The Fixation of Belief"

_____. "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"

_____. "A Guess at the Riddle"

_____. "The Architecture of Theories"

_____. "The Doctrine of Necessity Examined"

_____. "The Law of Mind"

_____. "Man's Glassy Essence"

_____. "Evolutionary Love"

_____. "The Seven Systems of Metaphysics"

_____. "What Pragmatism Is"

_____. "Issues of Pragmaticism"

_____. "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God"

Dewey, John. [These books are in the Southern Illinois University Press edition of Dewey's works, edited by JoAnne Boydston, and have many other editions and printings.]

_____. The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy (New York: Henry Holt, 1910)

_____. Human Nature and Conduct (New York: Henry Holt, 1922)

_____. Experience and Nature (second edition; Open Court, 1929)

_____. A Common Faith (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1934)

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Tractatus Logico-philosophicus (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1922).

Whitehead, Alfred North. Science and the Modern World (New York: Macmillan, 1925).

_____. Process and Reality (New York: Macmillan, 1929; Corrected edition by David Ray Griffin and Donald Sherburne: New York: Free Press, 1978)

_____. Adventures of Ideas (New York: Macmillan, 1933)

Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time (first edition: Jarhbuch für Phaenomenologie und phaenomenologische Forschung, 1927; translation of the 7th edition by Robinson and Macquarrie: London, SCM Press, 1962; or any other translation).

_____. What is Metaphysics?

Nishitani, Keiji. Religion and Nothingness. Translated, with an introduction by Jan Van Bragt; foreword by Winston L. King. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

1b(iv) Philosophy and History of Science: Crosscultural perspectives

Ashtiyani, Sayyid Jalal al-Din, et al, eds. Consciousness and reality : studies in memory of Toshihiko Izutsu. Leiden ; Boston :Brill, 2000. Islamic philosophy, theology, and science—Japanese scholar who compared Sufism and Taoism.

Bakar, Osman. The History and Philosophy of Islamic Science. Cambridge, UK: Islamic Texts Society, 1999.

Birdwhistell, Anne D. Transition to Neo-Confucianism: Shao Yung on Knowledge and Symbols of Reality. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989.

Bohm, David. Wholeness and the Implicate Order. London and New York: Ark, 1983. This includes an explicit discussion of crosscultural takes on the philosophy of physics.

Calverley, Edwin E.; Pollock, James W, eds. and translators. Nature, man and God in medieval Islam: Abd Allah Baydawi's text, Tawali al-anwar min matali al-anzar, along with Mahmud Isfahani's commentary, Matali al-anzar, sharh Tawali al-anwar. Boston: Brill, 2001.

Chattopadhyaya, Debiprasad, et al. (contributors). Language, Logic, and Science in India: Some Conceptual and Historical Perspectives. New Delhi: Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy, and Culture, 1995.

Dainian, Fan; Cohen, Robert S.; eds. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. Translated by Kathleen Dugan and Jiang Mingshan. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.

Eno, Robert. The Confucian Creation of Heaven: Philosophy and the Defense of Ritual Mastery. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990. [Contains a translation of Xunzi's important treatise on Nature.]

Garfield, Jay L. The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: Nāgārjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Haq, Syed Nomanul. Names, Natures and Things: The Alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan and his Kitab al-Ahjar (Book of Stones). Boston: Kluwer, 1994. [A study of Neo-Platonism in Islamic philosophy of science]

Jamieson, R. C. A Study of Nāgārjuna's Twenty Verses on the Great Vehicle (Mahāyānavimsikā) and his Verses on the Heart of Dependent Origination (Pratītyasamutpādahrdayakārikā) with the Interpretation of the Heart of Dependent Origination (Pratītyasamutpādahrdayavyākhyāna). New York: Peter Lang, 2000.

Kalupahana, David J. Causality—The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1975.

Macy, Joanna. Mutual Causality in Buddhism and General Systems Theory: The Dharma of Natural Systems. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.

Major, John S. Heaven and Earth in Early Han Thought: Chapters 3-5 of the Huainanzi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Shaner, David Edward; Nagatomo, Shigenori; Yasuo, Yuasa. Science and Comparative Philosophy: Introducing Yuasa Yasuo. Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, 1989. (YY is Japanese thinker who argues for the restoration of subjectivity in scientific analysis.)

Tucker, Mary Evelyn; Berthrong, John; eds. Confucianism and Ecology: The Interrelation of Heaven, Earth, and Humans. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1998.

Wallace, B. Alan. Choosing Reality: A Buddhist View of Physics and the Mind. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications, 1996.

Wallace, Vesna A. The Inner Kalacakratantra: A Buddhist Tantric View of the Individual. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Though the title includes "Individual," the text deals with philosophy of medicine.

Contents | Rationale for Exam 1 | Reading List for Exam 1

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