Professor Bruce Fraser

The links below will permit you to download DM papers and other DM information. The Guide should help you organize your work. The references are divided into three groups for your convenience. Below them I have placed papers that I have in electronic form according to some general categories. There is some overlap. If you acquire other papers, please send them to me for posting.

Note: The references are in the process of being edited and put into a consistent format so there are variations in their representations and there are typos.

Guidelines for DM Research


General References on DMs
CDM References
Specific English DMs and DP References

BASIC INTRODUCTORY PAPERS (They should be read in the order listed.)
Fraser - 1996 - Pragmatic Markers
Schourup - DM - A Tutorial
Fraser - 2005 - Towards a Theory of DMs
Mossegaard - 2005 - The Dynamic Poly. Appr.
Pons - 2005 - A Functional Appr. for DMs
Fischer - Introduction to ADP


Pragmatically Oriented
Aimer - DP in the Perspec. of Heterg.
Anderson - PMs as Indicators of Cxt. Align.
Dieward - DP and Mp as Gr. El.
Fischer - A Semantic - Pragmatic Model of DPs
Fischer - The Functional Polysemy of DP
Fraser - 1996 - Pragmatic Makers
Fraser - 1997 - Commentary Pragmatic Markers
Fraser - 2005 - Towards a Theory of  DMs
Gupta - Epistemic Modalities
Jayez - DMs and Unexpectedness
Lewis - DM in E - A Pragm. View
Mossegaard - 2005 - The Dynamic Polysemous Approach
Pons - 2005 - A Functional Appr. for DMs
Redeker - DMs as Attentional Cues
Rossari - Formal Properties of DMs
Roulet - DMs and Parenthesis
Schwenter - Sp. Connectives & Pragmatic Implicature

Relevance Theory Oriented
Blakemore - 2001 - Revisiting Procedural Meaning
Ler - A RT Approach to DP
Rouchota - DC - What do they link
Sperber & Wilson - RT Revisited

Discourse - Coherence Oriented
Roulet - Description of Text Relations
Sanders - 1997 - CI & Coh. Relations
Sanders - 2000 - Coh. Relations and Ling. Mkrs.
Schiffrin - DM Theory & and
Zeevat - Particles - Presupposition or Cxt Mkrs.
Other Oriented
Fischer - DP, Turn-taking
Nemo - A Morp of Discourse Words
Travis - The Nat. Sem. Metalanguage of DMs
Weydt - What are particles good for
Zeemat - A Dynamic Approach to DP


CDM Papers

Bell - On the other hand
Blakemore - Indicators & Procedures - but
Blakemore - But revisited (GURT paper)
Fraser - 1997 - CDMs in English
Iten - Chapter 5 of her dissertation
Lewis - DMs of Concession
Nemo - The Case of but & mais
Norrick - DMs in Oral Narrative
Schwenter - DMs and the pa - sn Distinction
Umbach - A Focus Semantic Analysis of but
Umbach - Contrast & Contrastive Topic
Waring - Also as a DM
Weber - Instead

EDM Papers
Asher - Subordinating and Coordinating Discourse
Blakemore - The Pragmatics of Sentential Coor. with and
Carston - The Pragmatics of and conjunctions
Carston - Introduction to Coordination
Dimroth - Additive Particles
Fraser - EDMs in English
Roulet - DMs and Parenthesis
Verstraete - Two Types of Coordinating

IDM Papers
Iten - Because and Although
Fraser - Outline of English IDMs
Ward - On the Sem. & Prag. of 'Identifier so'
Cheng - Conditional Marker if

TDM Papers
Tenbrink - The Pragmatics of before & after

Other Specific DM or DP Papers
Actually - Final Version
Aimer - The Case of actually and in fact
Aimer - The DP well
Anderson - PMs as Indicators of Contextual Alignment
Brinton - I mean
Celle - now
Condon - Ok as a Mrkr. of Common Ground
Fleishman - DM like
Kroon - The Latin Particle iam
Rullman - Either as a Negative Polarity Item
Taglicht - Actually
Taglicht - It's not so simple

Reformulation Marker Papers
Blakcmore - On Reformulation
Cuenca - Contrasting the Form & Use of RF Markers
Cuena - Two Ways to Reformulate
deSaz & Fraser - 2003 - RF in English
deSaz & Pennock - DMs of RF and Grammaticalization
Fetzer - RF & Common Ground
Murillo - A Relevance Assessment of RF Mkrs.
Murillo - Errata to Murillo
Wang - Reduplication & Repetition

Sequencing of DM Papers
Boessenkool - Fixed Particle Order
Goethals - Consecutive Adverbials
Oates - Sequencing of DMs

Universality of DMs
Fraser - 2005 - On the Universality of DMs


2000 – An Account of Innuendo