Weird Wild Web


About Wesley

Bibliography in Sustainable Development

Biology and Ecology Ethics and Philosophy Population
Case Studies General Social Issues
Economics History Tourism
Energy Industry Urban Planning
Environmental Justice Policy Water

Go to Index page, including Alphabetical Organization and Entire Bibliography File.

Environmental Justice

Boyle, E. P. (1993). "Its not easy being green: the psychology of racism, environmental discrimination, and the argument for modernizing equal protection analysis." Vanderbilt Law Review 46(4): 937-989.

Bullard, R. D. (1990). Dumping in Dixie: race, class, and environmental quality. Boulder, Westview Press.

In one of the earliest books about the link between social justice and environmental movements, Robert D. Bullard examines black efforts to improve the environmental conditions of their living and working conditions. It is shown that blacks have historically been underrepresented in the environmental movement which has tended to attract upper-middle class supporters who tend to focus on preserving wilderness areas, specific species, and reducing pollution in general. Often those in the lower classes have not been a part of this movement because other causes seem more pressing, because they do not have the experience or money to fight large corporations, or sometimes the hope that anything can be done. Through a extensive surveys, interviews, and investigations of government documents, Bullard describes five case studies of communities throughout the south where blacks fought toxic waste sites, and chemical factories in their neighborhoods. These efforts are often mobilized through existing social action groups including churches, and come about after environmental threats have been in the neighborhood for some time. The toxic waste sites and heavily polluting factories often ingratiate themselves to communities by promising much needed jobs, however they often, once built, rely on out of town or state laborers rather than employing locals. From these surveys, Bullard found that there is no anti-environmental bias among low income black communities, as is often thought, rather people identify the environment as a high concern, and strongly oppose environmental destruction, especially the kinds found in their communities. Problematically, people sometimes have to end up choosing between environmental safety and health and jobs, when certainly both should be possible. This book is particularly helpful for its detailed case studies, involving many incidents when companies were non compliant with city codes or laws only to go unpunished for decades while causing horrible health problems in residents and workers. It also outlines some steps to improving such community action, and makes a strong case that environmentalism cannot be separated from social justice.

Bullard, R. D. (1993). Confronting environmental racism: voices from the grassroots. Boston, Mass., South End Press.

This book overlaps heavily with Dumping in Dixie, though it includes examples taken from communities of color around the world, and deals with many types of environmental problems. It is most helpful for those looking for case studies of the deep connection between unsustainable practices and social justice. The authors have analyzed the environmental groups studied and found that most began as environmental organizations, they have multi-issue platforms, and tend to be led by women who see environmental problems as threats to their families, homes, and way of life. Time and time again it was shown that race is more significant than socio-economic status in the location of commercial hazardous waste facilities. It is particularly dismaying to learn that the EPA strategically ignored minority issues and is quick to respond when office workers are at risk from their workplace while the EPA is much slower to respond when farm workers are at risk. Studies of lead poisoning are also interesting.

Bullard, R. D. (1994). Unequal protection: environmental justice and communities of color. San Francisco, Sierra Club Books.

Cole, L. W. and S. R. Foster (2001). From the ground up: environmental racism and the rise of the environmental justice movement. New York, New York University Press.

Collin, R. W. (1994). "Review of the legal literature on environmental racism, environmental equity, and environmental justice." Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 9(1): 121-171.

Collin, R. W., T. Beatley, et al. (1995). "Environmental racism: a challenge to community development." Journal of Black Studies 25(3): 354-376.

Hartley, T. W. (1995). "Environmental justice: an environmental civil rights value acceptable to all world views." Environmental Ethics 17(3): 277-289.

Haughton, G. (1999). "Environmental justice and the sustainable city." Journal of Planning Education and Research 18(3): 233-43.

Langhelle, O. (2000). "Sustainable Development and Social Justice: Expanding the Rawlsian Framework of Global Justice." Environmental Values 9(3): 295-323.

This article focuses on two arguments: that the Brundtland report's idea of sustainablility includes an inherent focus on social justice, and that sustainable development is compatible with liberal theories of justice. Indeed, Langhelle argues that sustainable development moves past many liberal theories of justice in that it focuses on ecological interdependence, past inequality in resource use and the growth of limits, ideas that liberals often ignore.

Lord, C. P. and W. A. Shutkin (1994). "Environmental justice and the use of history." Environmental Affairs Law Review 83(22): 1.

Nordquist, J. (1995). Environmental racism and the environmental justice movement: a bibliography. Santa Cruz, CA, Reference and Research Services.

Novotny, P. (2000). Where we live, work, and play: the environmental justice movement and the struggle for a new environmentalism. Westport, Conn., Praeger.

Pepper, D. (1993). Eco-socialism: from deep ecology to social justice. London; New York, Routledge.

Portney, K. E. (1994). "Environmental justice and sustainability: Is there a critical nexus in the case of waste disposal or treatment facility setting?" Fordham Urban Journal Spring: 827-39.

Russell, D. (1989). "Environmental racism: minority communities and their battle against toxins." Amicus Journal 11(2): 162-182.

Scandrett, E. (2000). "Community work, sustainable development and environmental justice." Scottish Journal of Community Work and Development 6: 7-13.

Vasquez, X. C. (1993). "The North American Free Trade Agreement and environmental racism." Harvard International Law Journal 34(2): 357-379.

Warner, K. (2002). "Linking local sustainability initiatives with environmental justice." Local Environment 7(1): 35-47.

The information on this page is copyright 1994-2011, Wesley Wildman (basic information here), unless otherwise noted. If you want to use ideas that you find here, please be careful to acknowledge this site as your source, and remember also to credit the original author of what you use, where that is applicable. If you want to use text or stories from these pages, please contact me at the feedback address for permission.