Red Book

Written QEs
Oral QE
QEs: Xy track
QEs: Comp track


PhD: Rel Thght
PhD: Rel & Sc
ThD: Theology

R&S Green Book
RelTht Blue Book

QE Archive

Weird Wild Web

About Wesley

Prospectus for Doctoral Programs in Theology at Boston University School of Theology
(a.k.a. constantly updated, hyperlinked "Red Book")

Previous Page | Contents | Next Page

5. Bibliographies for Standardized Examinations

This section describes the written qualifying examinations for ThD Majors in theology, and ThD Minors in theology (whose interest is typically only in the third of the examinations described here).

5.1. Description of the Standardized Qualifying Examinations

The three standardized written qualifying examinations in theology assume that Christianity is the primary tradition of study. The three exams are distinguished by the period of theological reflection covered. The examinations are described here both in terms of the centuries covered and three major events with profound influence on the formation of theological traditions world-wide: the Axial Age (8th-6th centuries BCE) and its aftermath, the beginning of the period of European colonialism and missionary expansion (mid-17th century), and the official inauguration of the era of widespread inter-religious dialogue with the First World Parliament of Religions (1893). They are also described in terms of theological figures and literature in the bibliographies below.

Examination I: 1st Century CE through the 16th Century CE (the origins of Christianity to the beginning of European Colonialism, or the Classical and Medieval Period). The period from the axial age to the origins of Christianity is regarded as important background to the first examination, for which bibliography and core figures are recommended only from the 1st century CE onwards. A candidate’s knowledge of the pre-history of Christianity should appear in the examination answers when appropriate.

Examination II: 17th through the 19th Centuries (the beginning of European Colonialism to the First World Parliament of Religions, or the Modern Period).

Examination III: 20th Century (First World Parliament of Religions to the present, or the Contemporary Period).

In what follows, a description of the period covered by each written qualifying examination for the primary tradition of Christianity is given, together with some suggestions about what the Theology Faculty expect by way of depth and breadth of candidates’ knowledge of these periods. Note, however, that the examiners reserve the right to ask questions on any topic whatsoever in the specified period and that candidates are responsible to prepare the theology of the period for examination, not merely the minimal list of figures suggested. The figures and themes mentioned are simply aids to help candidates form some conception of the character of the qualifying examinations. More information can be obtained by perusing past examinations and sample questions (see "Preparing for the Written Qualifying Examinations," section 3.4).

5.1.1. Examination on the Classical and Medieval Period (1st to mid-17th Centuries)

The first examination covers Christian theological reflection from the 1st to the middle of the 17th century—admittedly a vast period. It begins with the origins of the Christian church and the formation of the New Testament literature. It presupposes an enormously fruitful period of theological reflection in the several centuries extending back to the Axial Age, especially among Greeks and Jews. It ends at the dawn of European colonialism, with its associated missionary expansion across the globe. European theology was just beginning to face profound internal challenges at this time, for the period ends at the cusp of the Renaissance and the European Enlightenment.

All candidates should possess an in-depth familiarity with about 12 figures from a variety of periods and perspectives, including the Ecumenical Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon, Origen, Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, and Calvin on the topics of concept of God, christology, anthropology, soteriology, pneumatology, ecclesiology, ethics and society, missions, eschatology, and theological method. All candidates should also be able to discuss such central themes as the influence of Neo-Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy on Christian doctrine; the relationship between the origins of Christianity and post-exilic Judaism, and between the development of early Christianity and Pharisaic Judaism; the relation between Christian theological reflection and varying social contexts; and changing theological reflection on the diversity of world religions and associated missionary endeavors.

5.1.2. Examination on the Modern Period (mid-17th to 19th Centuries)

The second examination covers the middle of the 17th century to the end of the 19th century. The period begins with the rise of European colonialism, and the birth of the Enlightenment’s confident religion of reason, typified by the works of such rationalists and deists as Locke, Voltaire, and Lessing. The middle of the period is marked both by the zenith of colonialism, in which "Greater Europe" virtually covered the globe, and by the criticisms of the religion of reason that surfaced in the religions of enthusiasm, exemplified by the theological works of Wesley and Edwards, as well as in the pietists, romantics, and such notable philosophers as Rousseau, Hume and Kant. It then progresses through the thinkers who were both to set the agenda for much of theology to the present, and to throw down the gauntlet to theology with penetrating critiques of religion: Coleridge, Schleiermacher, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Strauss, Feuerbach, Marx, Nietzsche, Darwin, Newman, Ritschl, Harnack, Rauschenbusch, Tyrrell, Loisy, Schweitzer, Emerson, James, and Freud. The period ends with a series of profoundly formative events for theology. Of great symbolic significance for many religious traditions and for theology in general was the First World Parliament of Religions in 1893. The 1910 Edinburgh Conference on world missions had similar importance for Christian mission and the decline of European colonialism. And the period ends with one of the great formative events of modernity, especially in the West: the First World War.

All candidates should be ready to discuss in detail the thought of Locke, Wesley, Kant, Hegel, Schleiermacher, Kierkegaard, Newman, and Harnack on the topics of concept of God, christology, anthropology, soteriology, pneumatology, ecclesiology, ethics and society, missions, eschatology, and theological method. In addition, candidates should be familiar with the work of five other figures from the period representing a variety of perspectives, at least one Catholic and one Protestant. All candidates should be familiar with the religion of reason and its attacks, the patterns of European colonialism and its influence on theology, as well as the major 19th century critiques of religion and their theological impact. All candidates should also be able to discuss the relations between theological reflection and such themes as Christian missions, historical criticism, Darwinism, philosophy of history, history of religions, sociology, and psychology.

5.1.3. Examination on the Contemporary Period (20th Century)

The third examination covers the 20th century, which is rightly thought to begin, from a theological point of view, with the series of events just identified as bringing the period of the second examination to a close. Two figures mark the turning point into the twentieth century for theology in the Protestant communions: Ernst Troeltsch and Karl Barth. Troeltsch is at his constructive height as the war begins, and Barth published his ground-breaking Epistle to the Romans in 1918, as the war ended. On the Roman Catholic side, the church is immersed in the Modernist Crisis, Pius X having published the Condemnation of Modernism, Pascendi gregis, in 1907. And on all sides, theology is increasingly involved in the study of the religions of the world, a study whose impact on theology is intensified by expanding migration and the already present decline of European colonialism.

All candidates should be ready to discuss in detail the thought of Troeltsch, Barth, Reinhold Niebuhr, Tillich, Pannenberg, Rahner, and the documents of Vatican II on the concept of God, christology, anthropology, soteriology, pneumatology, ecclesiology, ethics and society, missions, eschatology, and theological method. In addition, candidates should be familiar with roughly ten other figures meeting the following (overlapping) criteria:

  • diversity of ecclesial tradition: at least three Catholics, three Protestants, and one member of another theological tradition;
  • basic coverage of major, current theological options: at least one process theologian; at least one feminist theologian; at least one conservative evangelical theologian; at least one theologian dealing with religious pluralism; and at least one theologian representing each of African American, Asian, and Latin American liberation theology; and
  • in-depth coverage of several theological specializations: at least six representatives in three of the following recent specializations (two theologians in each specialization): (1) comparative theology and theology of religious pluralism; (2) (intra-Christian) ecumenical theology and theology of mission; (3) feminist theology; (4) liberation and indigenous theologies (African-American, African, East and South Asian, Latin American); (5) philosophical theology; (6) process theology; (7) radical theology; (8) literature and the arts; (9) theology and natural science.

5.1.4. Preparing for Qualifying Examinations through Courses

A number of courses are especially economical forms of preparation for written qualifying examinations because they are effectively overviews of a large amount of material. Here are some examples.

Classical and Medieval Period (1st-mid 17th centuries): STH and DRTS faculty offer courses covering most of the history of Christianity, and professors in other parts of the university as well as from other Boston area schools may offer courses in a period of special interest.

Modern Period (mid-17th-19th centuries): "Modern Western Theology I: The Modern Period" (STH TT909) covers Protestant and Roman Catholic theology in the late 17th through 19th centuries, which is the period of this examination. It is currently offered every second year in the Fall. There are also other classes covering figures and themes from this period.

Contemporary Period (20th Century): "Modern Western Theology II: The Contemporary Period" (STH TT930) covers Protestant and Roman Catholic theology in the period of this examination. It is offered every second year in the Spring. Again, candidates should watch for the many other courses covering aspects of 20th century theology.

5.2. Introduction to the Standardized Examination Bibliography

Beware! This is not a required reading list. It is a master list of works from which you will make choices about which theologians to study in detail. Make sure you know the expectations the Theology Faculty have of you; they are described in "Description of the Written Qualifying Examinations" (section 5.1).

This reading list is designed to give some indication of major theological works using the Christian tradition as a guide, and thus of the nature of the written qualifying examinations in theology. It is organized according to the periods covered by the qualifying examinations. Within that pattern, primary works are listed according to smaller time periods, regions of the world, or theological themes. Also included in each period are selected secondary works and works in philosophy and other disciplines that profoundly influenced theology. Many of the works listed here, or large parts of them, are available in collections of the author’s writings. Virtually all are housed in the School of Theology Library; some are kept at the Mugar Library.

Identifying important works in theology is easier with the benefit of hindsight. This makes possible briefer lists up through the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, an attempt is made to cover a wide range of theological perspectives and specializations. This makes for a very extended list. However, the criteria for depth and breath of knowledge in the written qualifying examinations are such that only sections of the list will be relevant for each candidate.

It follows from this that the general reading list needs to be studied in close conjunction with "Description of the Written Qualifying Examinations" (section 5.1) if it is to be helpful to candidates as they form some idea of how to prepare for examinations. Slavishly reading everything on the list is not an economical form of preparation, as the examination descriptions indicate; limiting reading to the material listed here is likewise not necessarily a wise strategy. Discussion of the list and its use in preparing for qualifying examinations is a one aspect of the work of the theology Proseminar (see "Theology Proseminar," section 2.1.1).

5.3. Classical and Medieval Period (1st to mid-17th Centuries)

This list is in rough chronological order. Dates for many early works are uncertain, so are included only from the Reformation onwards. Documents related to Ecumenical Councils may be found in Schaff’s Creeds of the Christian Church, vol. 2. Many of the works under "Ancient Theology" (section 5.3.1) can be found in the Library of Christian Classics.

Reminder: This list needs to be read in conjunction with "Description of the Written Qualifying Examinations" (section 5.1).

5.3.1. Ancient Theology

Ignatius of Antioch (c.35-c.107). Epistles

Justin Martyr (c.100-c.165). First and Second Apologies
            . Dialogue with Trypho, A Jew

Irenaeus of Lyons. (c.130-c.200). Against Heresies

Clement of Alexandria (c.150-c.215). Miscellanies (The Stromata)

Tertullian, Quintus Septimus Florens (c.160-c.225). The Apology
            . Against Marcion

Hippolytus (c.170-c.236). Refutation of All Heresies

Origen of Alexandria (c.185-c.254). Against Celsus
            . On First Principles

Athanasius of Alexandria (296-373). Against the Heathen
            . On the Incarnation

1st Ecumenical Council at Nicea (325)

Cyril of Jerusalem (c.315-386). Catechetical Lectures

Basil the Great (c.330-379). On the Spirit

Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389). The Five Theological Orations

Gregory of Nyssa (c.330-c.395). Against Eunomius
            . On the Holy Trinity

Ambrose of Milan (c.339-397). On Faith
            . On the Holy Spirit

John Chrysostom (c.347-407). On the Priesthood

2th Ecumenical Council at Constantinople (381)

Augustine of Hippo (354-430). The City of God
            . Confessions

Nestorius (d.451). Fragments

4th Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon (451)

Eutyches (c.378-454)

Dionysius, the Pseudo-Areopagite (c.500). The Divine Names
            . Mystical Theology

5.3.2. Early Medieval Theology

Boethius (c.480-524). The Consolation of Philosophy

Gregory the Great (c.540-604). The Book of Pastoral Rule

Isidore (c.560-638). The Catholic Faith Defended Against the Jews

Maximus the Confessor (c.580-662). 65 Questions
            . Mystagogia

6th Ecumenical Council at Constantinople (680)

John of Damascus (c.675-749). Fount of Wisdom

Alcuin (c.735-804). The Trinity

Erigena, John Scotus (c.810-c.877). On the Division of Nature
            . On Predestination

5.3.3. Scholastic Theology

Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109). Cur Deus Homo?
           . Monologium
            . Proslogium

Abelard, Peter (1079-1142). On Divine Names
            . Sic et non

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153). Sermons

Lombard, Peter (1095-c.1159). Four Books of Sentences

Hugh of St. Victor (c.1096-1142). The Sacraments of the Christian Faith

Albertus Magnus (c.1200-1280). Summa Theologica

Bonaventure, John (c.1217-1274). Commentary on Lombard’s Sentences
            . Journey to the Mind of God

Thomas Aquinas (c.1225-1274). Summa Theologicae
            . Summa Contra Gentiles

Duns Scotus, John (c.1265-1308). Commentary on Lombard’s Sentences

Eckhart, Meister (c.1260-1327). Defense

William of Ockham (c.1280-1349). The Seven Quodlibeta

Palamas, Gregory (c.1296-1359). The Triads in Defense of the Holy Hesuchasts

5.3.4. Forerunners to the Reformation and Reformers

Wycliffe, John (c.1330-1384). The Truth of Sacred Scripture

Huss, John. (c.1373-1415). The Church

Erasmus, Desiderius (c.1466-1536). Diatribe on Free Will

Luther, Martin (1483-1546). The Bondage of the Will
            . Freedom of the Christian
            . Two Kinds of Righteousness

Zwingli, Ulrich (1484-1531). Commentary on True and False Religion

Melanchthon, Philipp (1497-1560). Loci Communes

Calvin, John (1509-1564). Institutes of the Christian Religion

Knox, John (c.1513-1572). Treatise on Predestination

5.3.5. Counter-Reformation and Post-Tridentine Roman Catholic Theology

Council of Trent. The Canons and Dogmatic Decrees of the Council of Trent (1546-63)
            . Profession of the Tridentine Faith (1564)

Molina, Luis. Concordia liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis (1588)

Jansen, Cornelius Otto. Augustinus (1640)

5.3.6. Influential Works in Philosophy and Other Fields

Aristotle. Metaphysics

Maimonides, Moses. The Guide of the Perplexed (1190)

Plato. Philebus, Republic, Timaeus

Plotinus. Enneads

5.3.7. Secondary Literature and Collections

Grillmeier, Alois. Christ in the Christian Tradition (2nd ed., 1975)

Kelly, John N. D. Early Christian Creeds (3rd ed., 1972)

Obermann, Heiko. The Harvest of Medieval Theology (1963)

Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church, 8 vols. (1910)

Wolfson, Harry. The Philosophy of the Church Fathers (3rd ed., 1970)

5.4. The Modern Period (mid-17th through 19th Centuries)

This list is ordered alphabetically within denominational and regional groupings. Unless otherwise noted, the dates given are the dates of original publication, though English titles are used whenever translations exist, even if the translation is from an edition other than the original.

Reminder: This list needs to be read in conjunction with "Description of the Written Qualifying Examinations" (section 5.1).

5.4.1. Theology in the Late 17th and 18th Centuries

Butler, Joseph. Analogy of Religion (1736)

Collins, Anthony. A Discourse of Free Thinking (1713)

Edwards, Jonathan. A Treatise Concerning the Religious Affections (1746)

Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan (1651)

Locke, John. The Reasonableness of Christianity (1695)

Paley, William. View of the Evidences of Christianity (1794)

Pascal, Blaise. Lettres écrites à un provincial (1656-7)
            . Pensées (1670)

Spener, Philipp Jakob. Pia Desideria (1675)

Tindal, Matthew. Christianity as Old as the Creation (1730)

Toland, John. Christianity Not Mysterious (1695)

Wesley, John. An Earnest Appeal to Men of Reason and Religion (1744)
            . A Farther Appeal to Men of Reason and Religion (1745)
            . The Doctrine of Original Sin, according to Scripture, Reason, and Experience (1756-7)

5.4.2. Protestant Theology in the 19th Century Britain

Coleridge, Samuel David. Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit (1840)

Gore, Charles, ed. Lux Mundi (1889)

Maurice, Frederick Denison. The Kingdom of Christ (2nd ed., 1842) Europe

Dorner, Isaak August. Doctrine of the Person of Christ (1846-56)

Feuerbach, Ludwig. Essence of Christianity (1841)

Harnack, Adolf von. What is Christianity? (1900)

Herrmann, Wilhelm. The Communion of the Christian with God (1886)

Kähler, Martin. The So-Called Historical Jesus and the Historic, Biblical Christ (1892)

Kierkegaard, Søren. Attack upon Christendom (1854-5)
            . Concluding Unscientific Postscript (1846)

Ritschl, Albrecht. Justification and Reconciliation, vol. 3: The Positive Development of the Doctrine (1874)

Rothe, Richard. Theologische Ethik 5 vols. (2nd ed., 1867-71)

Sabatier, Auguste. Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion Based on Psychology and History (1902)

Schleiermacher, Friedrich. The Christian Faith (2nd ed., 1830)
            . Speeches on Religion Addressed to its Cultured Despisers (3rd ed., 1821)

Schweitzer, Albert. The Quest of the Historical Jesus (1906)

Strauss, David Friedrich. The Life of Jesus Critically Examined (1835) North America

Brown, William Adams. Christian Theology in Outline (1906)

Bushnell, Horace. God in Christ (1849)

Channing, William Ellery. Unitarian Christianity (1819)

Eddy, Mary Baker. Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (2nd ed., 1891)

Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology, 3 vols. (1875)

5.4.3. Roman Catholic Theology in the 19th Century

Blondel, Maurice. History and Dogma (1904)

Leo XIII. Aeterni Patris (1879)
            . Rerum novarum (1891)

Loisy, Alfred. The Gospel and the Church (1902)

Möhler, Johann Adam. Symbolism (1832)

Newman, John Henry. Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine (2nd ed., 1878)
            . An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (1870)

Pius IX. Ineffabilis Deus (1854)
            . Syllabus Errorum (1864)

Pius X. Pascendi Gregis (1907)
            . The Anti-Modernist Oath (1910)

Scheeben, Matthias Joseph. The Mysteries of Christianity (ET 1865)

Tyrrell, George. Christianity at the Crossroads (1910)

Vatican I. Dogmatic Constitution: Dei Filius, Pastor Aeternus (1870)

5.4.4. Influential Works in Philosophy and Other Fields

Bacon, Francis. The Great Instauration (1620)

Comte, Auguste. Positivist Philosophy, 6 vols. (5th ed., 1830; ET 1830-42)

Darwin, Charles. Origin of Species (1859)

Descartes, Rene. Meditations (1641)

Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1912)

Freud, Sigmund. The Future of an Illusion (1927)
            . Moses and Monotheism (1939)
            . Totem and Taboo (1913)

Hegel, G. W. F. Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion (1840)
            . Phenomenology of Spirit (1931)

Hodge, Charles, ed. Essays and Reviews (1860)

Hume, David. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779)

James, William. Varieties of Religious Experience (1902)

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason (1788)
            . Critique of Pure Reason (1781)
            . Prologomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783)

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm. Theodicy (1710)

Marx, Karl. The Communist Manifesto (1847-8)
            . Theses on Feuerbach (1845)

Nietzsche, Friedrich. Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883-5)

Spinoza, Benedict. Theological-Political Treatise (1670)

5.4.5. Secondary Literature and Collections

Barth, Karl. Protestant Thought: from Rousseau to Ritschl (2nd ed., 1952)

McCool, Gerald. Catholic Theology in the Nineteenth Century (1977)

Smart, Ninian; et. al., eds. Nineteenth Century Religious Thought in the West, 3 vols. (1985)

Welch, Claude. Protestant Thought in the Nineteenth Century, 2 vols. (1972-85)

5.5. The Contemporary Period (20th Century)

This list is ordered alphabetically within denominational, temporal and thematic groupings. Unless otherwise noted, the dates given are the dates of original publication, though English titles are used whenever translations exist, even if the translation is from an edition other than the original.

Reminder: This list needs to be read in conjunction with "Description of the Written Qualifying Examinations" (section 5.1).

5.5.1. Protestant Theology Early and Mid-20th Century Protestant Theology (Before 1965)

Aulén, Gustav. Christus Victor (1930)

Barth, Karl. Epistle to the Romans (1918)
            . Church Dogmatics, I/1: Doctrine of the Word of God (ET 1936)
            . Church Dogmatics, II/1: Doctrine of God (ET 1957)
            . The Humanity of God (1960)

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. Act and Being (1961)
            . The Cost of Discipleship (1948)
            . Ethics (1955)

Brunner, Emil. The Mediator (1927)

Bultmann, Rudolph. Faith and Understanding (ET 1969)
            . Jesus Christ and Mythology (ET 1958)
            . Theology of the New Testament, 2 vols. (1948-53)

Niebuhr, H. Richard. The Meaning of Revelation (1941)
            . Christ and Culture (1951)
            . The Responsible Self (1963)

Niebuhr, Reinhold. Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics (1932)
            . The Nature and Destiny of Man, 2 vols. (1941-43)

Nygren, Anders. Agape and Eros, 2 vols. (1930-6)
            . Meaning and Method (ET 1972)

Troeltsch, Ernst. The Christian Faith (1925)
            . Christian Thought: Its History and Application (1923)
            . The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches, 2 vols. (1912) Recent Protestant Theology (After 1965)

Buri, Fritz. Theology of Existence (1954)

Gustafson, James. Christ and the Moral Life (1968)
            . Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective, 2 vols. (1981-84)

Jüngel, Eberhard. The Doctrine of the Trinity: God’s Being is in Becoming (2nd ed., 1966)
            . God as the Mystery of the World (ET 1983)

Lindbeck, George. The Nature of Doctrine. Religion and Theology in a Postliberal Age (1984)

McFague, Sallie. Models of God (1987)

Metz, Johann Baptist. Theology of the World (1968; ET 1971)

Moltmann, Jürgen. The Crucified God (ET 1974)
            . God in Creation: A New Theology of Creation and the Spirit of God (ET 1985)
            . Theology of Hope (1964)

Pannenberg, Wolfhart. Theology and the Philosophy of Science (ET 1976)
            . Jesus, God and Man (ET 1977)
            . Systematic Theology, 3 vols. (ET 1991-4)
            . Theology and the Kingdom of God (ET 1969)

Thiemann, Ronald. Revelation and Theology: The Gospel as Narrated Promise (ET 1985)

Tillich, Paul. Systematic Theology, 3 vols. (1951-63)
            . The Theology of Culture (1959)

Wainwright, Geoffrey. Doxology, the Praise of God in Worship, Doctrine and Life: A Systematic Theology (1980)

5.5.2. Roman Catholic Theology Early and Mid-20th Century Roman and Anglo-Catholic Theology

Adam, Karl. The Christ of Faith: The Christology of the Church (ET 1957)

Congar, Yves. Tradition and Traditions: An Historical and Theological Essay, 2 vols. (ET 1960-63)

de Lubac, Henri. The Discovery of God (ET 1960)

Gilson, Etiene. God and Philosophy (ET 1941)

Maritain, Jacques. An Essay on Christian Philosophy (ET 1955)

Mascall, E. L. Existence and Analogy (1949)
            . He Who Is: A Study in Traditional Theism (1943)

Pius XII. Humani generis (1950)

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre. The Phenomenon of Man (ET 1959) Vatican II and Post-Vatican II Roman Catholic Theology

Balthasar, Hans Urs von. The Glory of the Lord: A Theological Aesthetics (ET 1983)
            . The God Question and Modern Man (ET 1967)

Beeck, Franz Josef van. God Encountered: A Contemporary Catholic Systematic Theology, vol. 1 (1989)

Carr, Anne E. Transforming Grace: Christian Tradition and Women’s Experience (1988)

Dulles, Avery. Models of the Church (2nd ed., 1987)

Johnson, Elizabeth A. She Who Is (1992)

Kasper, Walter. Jesus the Christ (ET 1976)

Küng, Hans. The Church (ET 1967)
            . On Being a Christian (ET 1976)

LaCugna, Catherine Mowry. God For Us: The Trinity and Christian Life (1991)

Lonergan, Bernard. Method in Theology (2nd ed., 1973)

Paul VI. Humanae vitae (1968)

Rahner, Karl. Foundations of the Christian Faith (1984)
            . Theological Investigations, vols. 4, 20

Schillebeeckx, Edward. Christ the Sacrament of the Encounter with God (ET 1963)
            . The Church With a Human Face. A New and Expanded Theology of Ministry (ET 1987)

Tracy, David. Blessed Rage for Order. The New Pluralism in Theology (1975)
            . The Analogical Imagination. Christian Theology and the Culture of Pluralism (1981)

Vatican II. Documents of Vatican II (Austin Flannery, ed., 1975)

5.5.3. British Theology Early and Mid-20th Century British Theology (Before 1965)

Baillie, Donald. God Was In Christ (1948)

Mackintosh, H. R. The Originality of the Christian Message (1920)

Temple, William. Nature, Man and God (1934)

Thornton, Lionel. The Incarnate Lord (1928)
            . Revelation and the Modern World (1950) Recent British Theology (After 1965)

Cupitt, Don. Christ and the Hiddenness of God (1971)
            . Taking Leave of God (1980)

Hick, John. Death and Eternal Life (1976)
            . Evil and the God of Love (2nd ed., 1978)
            . The Metaphor of God Incarnate (1993)
            , ed. The Myth of God Incarnate (1977)

Macquarrie, John. Principles of Christian Theology (1977)
            . Jesus Christ in Modern Thought (1990)

Robinson, John. Honest to God (1963)

5.5.4. Other Theological Traditions Orthodox Theology

Bulgakov, S. N. The Wisdom of God: A Brief Summary of Sophiology (ET 1937)

Florovsky, G. V. Christianity and Culture (ET 1974)
            . Creation and Redemption (ET 1976)

Lossky, Vladimir N. The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church (ET 1968)

Zizioulas, John. Being as Communion (ET 1985) Radical Reformation

Kaufman, Gordon. In Face of Mystery (1993)
            . Theological Imagination: Constructing the Concept of God (1981)

McClendon, Jr., James W. Systematic Theology: Ethics, 2 vols. (1986-93)

Rauschenbusch, Walter. A Theology for the Social Gospel (1917)

Yoder, John Howard. The Politics of Jesus (1993) Evangelical and Fundamentalist Theology

Berkhof, Louis. Systematic Theology (1941)

Bloesch, Donald G. Essentials of Evangelical Theology, 2 vols. (1978)

Carnell, Edward J. An Introduction to Christian Apologetics (1948)

Henry, Carl F. H. God, Revelation and Authority, 6 vols. (1976-83)
            . The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism (1947)

Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology (1872-3)

Machen, J. Gresham. Christianity and Liberalism (1923)

Thielicke, Helmut. The Evangelical Faith, 3 vols. (ET 1974-82)

Van Til, Cornelius. The New Modernism: An Appraisal of the Theology of Barth and Brunner (2nd ed., 1947)
            . A Christian Theology of Knowledge (1969)

Warfield, Benjamin B. Works of Benjamin B. Warfield, 10 vols., esp. vol. 1, Revelation and Inspiration (1927); vol. 2, Biblical Doctrines (1929); vol. 3, Christology and Criticism (1929) Jewish Theology

Buber, Martin. Between Man and Man (ET 1947)
            . I and Thou (2nd ed., ET 1958)

Rosenzweig, Franz. The Star of Redemption (ET 1971)

Shestow, Lev. Speculation and Revelation (ET 1982)

5.5.5. Advocacy Theologies and Theological Specialties

Reminder: This list needs to be read in conjunction with "Description of the Written Qualifying Examinations" (section 5.1). Specifically, you need to know six figures from among all of these theological specialties and examples of advocacy theology (two theologians from each of three specialities). Both the specialties and the theologians are your choice, but consult the guidelines for the examination to aid you in making the decision. Comparative Theology; Theology and Religious Pluralism

Ariarajah, Wesley. Hindus and Christians (1991)

Ching, Julia. Confucianism and Christianity: A Comparative Study (1977)

Cobb, John. Beyond Dialogue (1982)

Cragg, Kenneth. The Christ and the Faiths: Theology in Cross-Reference (1986)

D'Costa, Gavin, ed., Christian Uniqueness Reconsidered (1990)

Griffiths, Paul J. An Apology for Apolgetics: A Study in the Logic of Interreligious Dialogue (1991)

Hick, John. An Interpretation of Religion (1989)

Hick, John; Knitter, Paul F., eds. The Myth of Christian Uniqueness. Toward a Pluralistic Theology of Religions (1987)

Hood, Robert E. Must God Remain Greek? (1990)

Knitter, Paul F., No Other Name? (1985)

Krieger, David J. The New Universalism (1991)

Lochhead, David. The Dialogical Imperative: A Christian Reflection on Interfaith Encounter (1988)

Panikkar, Raimundo. The Inter-Religious Dialogue (1978)

Smart, Ninian. Christian Systematic Theology in a World Context (1991)

Smith, W. C., Towards a World Theology (1981)

Tillich, Paul, Christianity and the Encounter of World Religions (1963)

Van Buren, Paul M. A Theology of the Jewish-Christian Reality, 3 vols. (1980-88)

Vroiom, Hendrick M. Religions and the Truth: Philosophical Reflections and Perpsectives (1989) Ecumenical Theology and Theology of Mission

Bilhiemer, Robert S. Breakthrough: The Emergence of the Ecumenical Tradition (1989)

Bosch, David. Transforming Mission (ET 1991)

Hocking, William Ernest. Re-Thinking Mission: A Layman's Inquiry after One Hundred Years (1932)

Kraemer, Hendrik. Christian Message in a Non-Christian World (2nd ed., 1947)

Raiser, Konrad. Ecumenism in Transition: A Paradigm Shift in the Ecumenical Movement? (ET 1991)

Rouse, Ruth; Neill, Stephen; Fey, Harold E., eds. A History of the Ecumenical Movement, 2 vols. (2nd ed., 1967-70)

Van der Bent, Ans J. Vital Ecumenical Concerns (ET 1986) Feminist Theology

NB. Some works in Feminist Theology have already been listed above under "Recent Protestant Theology (After 1965)" (section and "Vatican II and Post-Vatican II Roman Catholic Theology" (section

Daly, Mary. The Church and the Second Sex (1975)
            . Beyond God the Father (1973)
            . Pure Lust. Elemental Feminist Philosophy (1984)

Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schüssler. In Memory of Her (1983)

Pagels, Elaine. The Gnostic Gospels (1979)

Plaskow, Judith; Christ, Carol, eds. Womanspirit Rising: Weaving the Visions (1979)

Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Sexism and God-Talk (1983)

Russell, Letty M. The Future of Partnership (1979)
            . Household of Freedom. Authority in Feminist Theology (1987)

Soelle, Dorothy. Political Theology (1974)
            . To Work and to Love. A Theology of Creation (1986)
            . Suffering (1975)

Weaver, Mary Jo. New Catholic Women: A Contemporary Challenge to Traditional Religious Authority (1985) Liberation and Indigenous Theology Latin American

Boff, Leonardo. Ecclesiogenesis (ET 1986)
            . Jesus Christ Liberator (ET 1978)

Ferm, Deane. Third World Liberation Theologies. An Introductory Survey (1986)

Gutierrez, Gustavo. A Theology of Liberation (1973)

Miguez-Bonino, José. Doing Theology in a Revolutionary Situation (ET 1975)

Segundo, Juan Luis. Liberation of Theology (ET 1976)

Sobrino, Jon. Christology at the Crossroads (ET 1978) East Asian

Chung, Hyun Kyung. Struggle to be the Sun Again: Introducing Asian Women’s Theology (1990)

Kim, Byongsuh; Lee, S. H. Lee. The Korean Immigrant in America (1980)

xLee, Jung Young. The Theology of Change: A Christian Concept of God in an Eastern Perspective (1979)

Minjung Theology: People as the Subjects of History, ed. by the Commission on Theological Concerns of the Christian Conference of Asia (1981)

Pieris, S.J., Aloysius. An Asian Theology of Liberation (1988)

Song, C. S. Tell Us Our Names: Story Theology from an Asian Perspective (1984)
            . Third-Eye Theology (1979) South Asian

Kappen, Sebastian. Jesus and Freedom (1977)

Panikkar, Raimundo. The Unknown Christ of Hinduism: Towards an Ecumenical Christophany (2nd ed., 1981)

Samartha, Stanley. The Hindu Response to the Unbound Christ (1974)
            . One Christ—Many Religions: Toward a Revised Christology (1991)

Thomas, M. M. Man and the Universe of Faiths (1975)
            . The Secular Ideologies of India and the Secular Meaning of Christianity (1976) African American

Cone, James H. God of the Oppressed (1975)
            . A Black Theology of Liberation (2nd ed., 1986)

Grant, Jacquelyn. White Women’s Christ and Black Women’s Jesus: Feminist Christology and Womanist Response (1989)

Lincoln, C. Eric. Race, Religion, and the Continuing American Dilemma (1984)

Roberts, J. Deotis. Liberation and Reconciliation: A Black Theology (2nd ed., 1994)

West, Cornel. Prophesy Deliverance! An Afro-American Revolutionary Christianity (1982)

Williams, Delores. Sisters in the Wilderness: The Challenge of Womanist God-Talk (1993)

Wilmore, Gayraud S. Black Religion and Black Radicalism (2nd ed., 1983) African

Boesak, Allan Aubrey. Black Theology, Black Power (1976)

Mbiti, J. S. African Religions and Philosophy (2nd ed., 1990)

Pobee, John. Toward An African Theology (1979) Philosophical Theology

Farrer, Austin. Finite and Infinite (1959)
            . Freedom of the Will (1958)

Ferré, Frederick. Basic Modern Philosophy of Religion (1967)
            . Language, Logic and God (1961)

Hocking, William Ernest. The Meaning of God in Human Experience (1912)

Mitchell, Basil. The Justification of Religious Belief (1973)

Hick, John. Evil and the God of Love (1978)
            . Philosophy of Religion (3rd ed., 1983)

Ricoeur, Paul. The Symbolism of Evil (1967) Process Theology

Cobb, John. A Christian Natural Theology (1965)
            . Christ in a Pluralistic Age (1975)

Hartshorne, Charles. The Divine Relativity (1948)

Ogden, Schubert. The Reality of God and Other Essays (1966)

Suchocki, Marjorie. God, Christ, Church (1982)

Whitehead, Alfred North. Religion in the Making (1925) Radical Theology

Altizer, Thomas. The Gospel of Christian Atheism (1966)
            . The Genesis of God: A Theological Genealogy (1993)

Gilkey, Langdon. Message and Existence (1979)
            . Naming the Whirlwind: The Renewal of God Language (1969)

Scharlemann, Robert. The Being of God: Theology and the Experience of Truth (1981)

Taylor, Mark C. Deconstructing Theology (1982)
            . Erring (1984)

Van Buren, Paul M. The Secular Meaning of the Gospel, Based on an Analysis of Its Language (1963) Theology, Literature and the Arts

Dillenberger, John. A Theology of Artistic Sensibilities: The Visual Arts and the Church (1986)

Harned, David Bailey. Theology and the Arts (1966)

Hazelton, Roger. A Theological Approach to Art (1967)

Hoffman, Frederick John. The Imagination’s New Beginning: Theology and Modern Literature (1967)

Takenaka, Masao. Christian Art in Asia (1975)

Taylor, Mark C. Disfiguring: Art, Architecture, Religion (1992)

Van der Leeuw, G. Sacred and Profane Beauty: The Holy in Art (ET 1963)

Weiss, Paul. Religion and Art (1963)

Wilder, Amos N. The New Voice: Religion, Literature and Hermeneutics (1969)
            . Theology and Modern Literature (1958) Theology and Natural Science

Barbour, Ian. Religion and Science: Historical and Constructive Issues (1997)
            . Ethics in an Age of Technology (1993)

Birch, Charles; Cobb, John. The Liberation of Life: From the Cell to the Community (1981)

Peacocke, A. R. Creation and the World of Science (1979)
            . Theology for a Scientific Age: Being and Becoming—Natural and Divine (2nd ed., 1993)

Polkinghorne, John. Science and Creation: The Search for Understanding (1988)
            . Science and Providence: God’s Interaction with the World (1989)

Torrance, Thomas F. Reality and Scientific Theology (1985)

5.5.6. Influential Works in Philosophy and Other Fields

Ayer, A. J. Language, Truth and Logic (2nd ed., 1946)

Bleicher, Josef. Contemporary Hermeneutics. Hermeneutics as Method, Philosophy and Critique (ET 1980)

Brightman, Edgar Sheffield. A Philosophy of Religion (1940)

Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Truth and Method (2nd ed., ET 1989)

Habermas, Jürgen. Knowledge and Human Interests (ET 1971)

Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time (ET 1962)

Husserl, Edmund. Phenomenology and the Crisis of Philosophy (ET 1965)

Ricoeur, Paul. Interpretation Theory: Discourse and the Surplus of Meaning (ET 1976)
            . Rule of Metaphor. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Creation of Meaning in Language (ET 1975)

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Being and Nothingness: An Essay in Phenomenological Ontology (ET 1956)

Soskice, Janet Martin. Metaphor and Religious Language (1985)

Whitehead, Alfred North. Process and Reality (1921)
            . Science and the Modern World (1925)

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (ET 1921)
            . Philosophical Investigations (3rd ed., ET 1958)

5.5.7. Secondary Literature and Collections

Ford, David F. The Modern Theologians: An Introduction to Christian Theology in the Twentieth Century, 2 vols. (1989)

Hopper, Jeffery. Understanding Modern Theology, 2 vols. (1987)

5.6. Other Texts

Listed here are some secondary works that do not readily fit under one of the other headings used to organize this reading list.

5.6.1. Other Secondary Works

Harnack, Adolf von. History of Dogma, 7 vols (ET of 3rd ed., 1961)

Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, 5 vols (1958-1962)

Livingston, James C. Modern Christian Thought: From the Enlightenment to Vatican II (1971)

Marty, Martin; Peerman, Dean G., eds. A Handbook of Christian Theologians, revised ed. (1984)

Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, 5 vols. (1971-89)

Schaff, Philip, ed. The Creeds of Christendom, 3 vols. (6th revised ed., 1983)

Previous Page | Contents | Next Page

The information on this page is copyright ©1994 onwards, Wesley Wildman (basic information here), unless otherwise noted. If you want to use ideas that you find here, please be careful to acknowledge this site as your source, and remember also to credit the original author of what you use, where that is applicable. If you want to use text or stories from these pages, please contact me at the feedback address for permission.