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 !  Research on the Urban Environment


In 2000, 80% of the United States population lived in metropolitan areas. Social and environmental inequality persists and contributes to ongoing racial and economic health disparities.

In the course of research, a great deal of data have been developed based on Census and other data sources. This data has been generated for all US metropolitan areas established by the federal OMB in 1998.

The income inequality data includes GINI Index, Robin Hood Index, 20/80 Poverty Ratios and P* Indexes for all people living in poverty and non-Hispanic Whites living in Poverty. These cover all US metropolitan areas for the year 2000. Ratios of poverty rates are also included here.

The Sprawl Index measures levels of urban sprawl in all US metropolitan areas for the years 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000. For additional detail on methodology, Please see the January 2003 edition of Urban Affairs Review.

Exposure inequality is measured by Net Difference Scores. These can be described as the odds a randomly selected Black person is breathing air with higher level total modeled air toxics minus the odds a randomly selected White person is breathing air with higher total modeled air toxics. Absolute average modeled air toxic levels unweighted, cancer weighted and non-cancer wieghted are included here for each major racial/ethnic group as well Net Difference Scores by summation methodology and race/ethnic group for all metro areas.

For data on racial segregation, the Mumford Institute of SUNY Albany has excellent resources. Their link is:

Segregation Data - Mumford Institute

 !  DATA

Sprawl Data



Sprawl Maps

Atlanta GA

Buffalo NY

Phoenix AZ

San Jose CA

Income inequality data




Exposure inequality data