Love, Power, and Justice: Ontological Analysis and Ethical Applications.
By Paul Tillich. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1954.
Paul Tillich’s easily approachable
volume Love, Power, and Justice: Ontological Analyses and Ethical
Applications was originally conceived of as a pair of lecture series
(the Firth lectures in Nottingham, England and the Sprunt lectures at Union
Theological Seminary in Richmond, Virginia) and a small seminar Tillich
taught at Princeton. It reads quickly and its chapters possess the steady
flow of thoughts that a good lecturer should present his audience. As
Tillich admits, the idea of dealing with terms that carry such gravity,
history, and problems is daunting (v). As such, he offers (as the
title suggests) only the most basic ontological analysis and possible
ethical applications. The result is what Jacob Taubes has called a “real
tour de force,” a compact and lucid untangling of the meanings that saturate
these words, making them almost unintelligible in common usage.
The ubiquity of the terms under
consideration in Love, Power, and Justice to all spheres of thinking
(especially theological and philosophical arenas) presents a unique problem.
Their significance warrants special attention to their meaning, yet the
breadth of their usage prevents any one thinker from forming an accurate
picture of this meaning (either individually or relationally). Tillich, in
typical fashion, approaches the terms as “principles” or categories of
being, which prompts an ontological investigation into their meaning. The
first chapter reveals the problematic nature of talking about such
principles, while chapters II, III, and IV jump headlong into analysis,
aiming to elaborate these meanings by determining their individual relation
to being, i.e. asking “In what way is each of these concepts rooted in
being-itself?” After the individual meanings are parsed, Tillich moves on to
investigate how these terms, taken in relation to one another, manifest a
particular set of ethical implications, thus linking the structure of being
to right action in three spheres of ascending scale: the personal, the
political, and the ultimate.
Tillich frames love in the polarity of
estrangement and reunion (25). Human being is always being under the
conditions of existence. As such, it is being experienced as estrangement
from all other beings. Love, then, is the “drive towards the unity of the
separated.” Love constantly moves towards reunion and, in this way, finds
itself “united with the compulsory elements of power” in order to destroy
what is against love (50).
His analysis of power is a bit more
nebulous. Power is a potentiality that exists or is actualized only in a
being’s encounter with the other. It is made real in the confrontation
between lives, which are the constant affirmations of being in the face of
non-being (37-41). This self-affirmation is what Tillich calls “the power of
being.” The idea of compulsion plays a huge role in Tillich’s explanation
of power. Every actual manifestation of power, Tillich says, possesses some
form of compulsion. He goes on to explain how and why force and compulsion
are necessary actualizations of power. One of the more striking features of
this analysis is his characterization of the self as a power structure. That
is, the use of force and compulsion over the forces, both internal and
external, which shape the self in a way that controls this process (hence
Justice is the “form in which the power
of being actualizes itself” (56) under the principle of love (57). It is
grounded in the essential claim of all beings as beings (as opposed
to things). Justice is violated when this intrinsic claim is disregarded,
when an other’s power of being is rejected. In summation of these three
analyses, Tillich states that justice preserves what love reunites. Justice
is “the form in which and through which love performs its work” (71), the
channel through which the compulsive and forceful power of love is
The remaining three chapters move very
quickly. The three guiding concepts are used here somewhat like a system of
checks and balances, ensuring that first personal relations, then corporate
and divine relations are held in harmony by the proper application of love,
power, and justice. It is interesting to note, at least stylistically, that
the second half of the book actually mirrors the first, taking as its
orienting principle first justice, then power, and ending with love. It may
be a sign as to how these terms are actually weighted in Tillich’s overall
system (love, as the first and last, representing the most important of the
The most interesting section in this
last half comes in his analysis of group relations or political interaction.
He emphasizes the importance of a given social group’s center and the
dynamics of power that determine the actions of these centers and, thus, the
actions of the larger social body. His aim is to say that it is not the
group itself that is directly held responsible, but the actors in the center
of power. His example is unusually relevant (given his context): Nazi
Germany. If one was ever looking for a place where Tillich’s personal
concerns explicitly spilled over into his theory, this would be that place.
“It is never the nation which is directly guilty for what is done by the nation.
It is always the ruling group. But all individuals in a nation are
responsible for the existence of the ruling group. Not many individuals in
Germany are directly guilty of Nazi atrocities. But all of them are
responsible for the acceptance of a government which was willing and able to
do such things. Those who represent the power of a social group are a
representative but not an actual center. A group is not a person.” (94)
He goes on in this section to defend,
in a way, the idea of empires as uniting forces (i.e. forces of love) and
the possibility of a world-state emerging from the bifurcation of the two
great Cold War powers (104-106). Such talk naturally leads into a
conversation on the very possibility of a united mankind, the holy
community, and the Kingdom of God.
The last chapter begins with a quick
lesson in ground-of-being theology and how we are to relate the principles
under consideration to the divine. The principles of love, power, and
justice are applied to God only symbolically. Because they are principles of
being and God is the ground or abyss of being, we can only speak
symbolically of “God” (the symbolic persona with which we orient
matters of ultimate concern) and God’s love, power, and justice. In this
final chapter, Tillich absolutely blazes through a hyper-condensed version
of his systematic theology. God as the ground of being, existential hell as
despair, the courage to be, the Cross as a symbol of divine love, Spiritual
power as a force for reuniting love, the idea of the church as anticipating
the Kingdom, so on and so forth. All in the span of ten short pages
Like much of Tillich’s work, this book
attempts to offer a descriptive analysis of the structures of being and a
frame for understanding some of these structures in relation to one another.
The downside to such an approach is the lack of determinate moral positions
with regard to viewing the world through this frame. For example, when
Tillich says that love and power are unified in a way such that love,
through compulsion, destroys those things which stand in the way of reunion,
what are we to take from this in a practical sense? Could not a variety of
destructive actions be justified under the banner of love? The same could be
said regarding his different conceptions of justice, which manifest
themselves necessarily in relations of power between beings in existence.
How does one judge the relative claims of beings and thus the proper degree
or kind of compulsion which is necessary to both love and justice? How and
under what circumstances should one punish or be punished? There are, of
course, other areas that could be critiqued. First and foremost being his
description of the different qualities of love in the last chapter,
particularly his defense and valorization of agape over and above a shallow
characterization of eros (116-119). Yet, I find his philosophically poetic
prose to be artfully convincing despite these shortcomings.
This slim volume (a mere 125 pages) reads like a primer to Paul Tillich’s
patented method of ontological analysis. It could be easily recommended
to newcomers to Tillich’s thought, who will more than likely find it
dazzling in its philosophical acumen, though not overbearing in its
depth. It could also be recommended to those familiar with Tillich’s
system, who may find deep wells of meaning underlying the seemingly
simple presentation of such rich terms.
W. G. Dalton
Helpful (contemporaneous) reviews:
J. Glenn. Review of Love, Power, and Justice: Ontological Analyses and
Ethical Applications, by Paul Tillich. The
Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 51, No. 21 (Oct. 14, 1954), pp. 644-646.
Ramsey, Paul. Review of Love, Power, and Justice: Ontological Analyses
and Ethical Applications, by Paul Tillich. The
Philosophical Review, Vol. 64, No. 1 (Jan., 1955), pp. 155-158.
Taubes, Jacob. Review of Love, Power, and Justice: Ontological Analyses
and Ethical Applications, by Paul Tillich. The
Journal of Religion, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Apr., 1955), pp. 99-100.
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