Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology

Richard Swinburne (1934- )

Table of Contents
1. Background
2. Works (Selected List)
3. Themes
4. Outline of Major Works
5. Relation to Other Thinkers
6. Bibliography and Works Cited
7. Internet Resources
8. Related Topics

1. Background

Education

Richard Swinburne was born in 1934 to parents who were not religious believers. He attributes the origins of a lifetime of thinking about what Christians believe to his early years at school. In 1952 he was awarded an open scholarship to study classics at Exeter College, Oxford. After a period of military service, he went to Oxford as an undergraduate in 1954 with the conviction that being a Christian was the most important thing in his life. Swinburne read for a B.A. in Philosophy, Politics and Economics, with a concentration in philosophy, completing his degree in 1957. He found that Oxford philosophy in the 1950s was not interested in metaphysical systems such as Christian theism. However, Swinburne arrived at the conviction that philosophy provided tools, which could be used to make Christianity intellectually credible, and he came to believe that his vocation was to make a contribution to such an endeavor. To equip himself for the vocation of a philosopher he read for the Oxford B.Phil in philosophy (1957-59). At this stage in his life he planned on ordination to the Anglican (Church of England) ministry and entered St. Stephen’s House, Oxford, where he earned the Oxford Diploma in Theology (1959-60). Swinburne subsequently decided not to continue towards ordination and opted instead to pursue a career as a professional philosopher. He believed that modern theoretical science posed the most serious intellectual challenges to contemporary Christianity, so he studied science, the philosophy of science, and the history of science as a Leverhulme Research Fellow from 1961-63 at the University of Leeds. Swinburne, on the basis of his study of science and philosophy, discerned an analogy between scientific theory and metaphysical theory. Both types of theory attempt to offer explanations for observable phenomena. A scientific theory sets out to explain how the universe operates in an orderly way. A metaphysical explanation seeks to account for the existence of the universe and the emergence of human beings within it. “Once I had seen this, my program was in place: to use the criteria of modern natural science, analysed with the careful rigour of modern philosophy, to show the meaningfulness and justification of Christian theology” (Swinburne, 1994a, 9). St Thomas Aquinas is a model of theological method to Swinburne, a Christian thinker who begins with the best science and philosophy of his day to lay a foundation for Christian theology. Swinburne similarly aims to begin with secular thought and then proceed to the task of theological construction. He concedes that faith is a choice made by a person, but insists good reasons should be available to justify someone in making the decision to embrace Christianity.

Early Career

Swinburne’s first academic posts were at the University of Hull as Lecturer (1963-69) and Senior Lecturer (1969-72). In this initial period of his academic career he concentrated on the philosophy of science and published his first book Space and Time (1968). He was then appointed as Professor of Philosophy at the University of Keele (1972-85). At Keele, Swinburne shifted his focus to the philosophy of religion and published his trilogy on the philosophy of theism: The Coherence of Theism (1977), The Existence of God (1979), and Faith and Reason (1981). The second volume in the series set out to rehabilitate natural theology by making a case for the probability of the existence of God from observation of the world without recourse to revelation. Swinburne turned his attention to the relationship between mind and body in the early 1980s. In 1982-84 he delivered the Gifford Lectures, the prestigious lecture series dedicated to the task of natural theology that was established by Lord Gifford in 1888 in the historic universities of Scotland (St. Andrews, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Glasgow). The material presented in these lectures appeared in two published forms: Personal Identity (coauthored with Sydney Shoemaker, 1984) and The Evolution of the Soul (1986).

Oxford and Retirement 

In 1985 Swinburne was appointed Nolloth Professor of the Philosophy of the Christian Religion at the University of Oxford and continued in the post until his retirement in 2002. Swinburne’s writing at Oxford addressed the meaning and basis of Christian doctrine from a philosophical perspective and resulted in a tetralogy (a series of four books) to complement his earlier trilogy on philosophical theism: Responsibility and Atonement (1989), Revelation (1991), The Christian God (1994), and Providence and the Problem of Evil (1998). Since retiring in 2002, Swinburne has published The Resurrection of God Incarnate (2003) and been busy rewriting several of his earlier books.

2. Works (Selected List)

Space and Time (1968), The Concept of Miracle (1971), An Introduction to Confirmation Theory (1973), The Coherence of Theism (1977), The Existence of God (1979), Faith and Reason (1981), Personal Identity (1984), The Evolution of the Soul (1986), Responsibility and Atonement (1989), Revelation (1992), The Christian God (1994), Providence and the Problem of Evil (1998), Is There a God? (1996), Epistemic Justification (2001), The Resurrection of God Incarnate (2003).

3. Themes

An Exercise in Apologetics: Engaging Science, Justifying Theism, and Explaining Christian Doctrine

In essence, Swinburne’s intellectual project is apologetic in nature and addresses three basic themes: (1) engaging theoretical science, (2) justifying theism, and (3) justifying and explaining central Christian doctrines. His primary aim is to demonstrate that Christian belief is plausible and probable in the contemporary world. He wants to communicate with a secular audience in terms that it finds intelligible without sacrificing traditional Christian theological beliefs. Swinburne draws upon the tradition of analytic philosophy to approach the central claims of Christian belief. His early books - The Coherence of Theism, The Existence of God, and Faith and Reason - constitute a trilogy and develop a sequence of ideas. The first volume considers what it means to claim that God exists and argues that it is coherent to suppose that God exists, the second evaluates the evidence for the probability of God’s existence, and the third volume examines the relationship between faith and reason. More recently, Swinburne has produced a tetralogy of philosophical theology that justifies and explains cardinal Christian doctrines. The four volume series consists of Responsibility and Atonement (on human beings as moral creatures, sin, forgiveness, and the meaning of the cross), Revelation (on how God communicates with human beings), Providence and the Problem of Evil (on theodicy), and The Christian Idea of God (on the uniquely Christian doctrines of the Trinity and Incarnation). Swinburne has also examined what it means to be human in Personal Identity, the theory of knowledge in Epistemic Justification, and the probability of Jesus’ resurrection in The Resurrection of God Incarnate.

4. Outline of Major Works

The Existence of God

In the second edition of The Existence of God Richard Swinburne declares that the second volume of his trilogy on the philosophy of theism “ is the central book of all that I have written on the philosophy of religion” (Swinburne, 1979 [Second Edition 2004, v]). The Existence of God weighs up arguments for and against the claim that there is a God. Swinburne contends that the claim for the existence of God or theism is central to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. He is, therefore, attempting to make a case for what he regards as a truth claim common to all three religions. The book mainly considers the arguments in favor of the existence of God, but does devote one chapter to the most serious argument, in Swinburne’s view, against his thesis, namely, the problem of evil. Why believe that God exists? Swinburne answers this question by arguing that God is the best hypothesis to explain most of what human beings experience. The existence of God is the most satisfactory explanation for the fact of the universe, the operation of general laws of nature, the evolution of human beings, the opportunity to develop human character, the historically trustworthy report of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, and the claims many people have made through history that God has encountered and guided them. The case for the existence of God is a cumulative one based upon observable phenomena and human experience. Swinburne subsequently wrote a more accessible account of his arguments for the existence of God in Is There a God? (1996), and published an even more straightforward account in The Justification of Theism (see Internet Resources following Bibliography). 

a. Method: An Inductive Pattern of Argument

Swinburne utilizes an inductive method of argument to make his case for the existence of God. Historically, Swinburne points out, phenomena such as the existence of the universe and individual religious experience have served as starting points for philosophers to argue for the existence of God. These philosophical arguments share a common structure. A phenomenon that can be observed by everyone is evaluated. The phenomenon is out of the ordinary and is not to be expected in the normal course of life unless God exists. This mode of argument is used in science, philosophy, and history.

Scientists use an inductive pattern of argument to make the case for entities that cannot be observed to explain phenomena that they can observe. Swinburne’s study of science persuades him that the significant developments in modern science have concerned matters that go beyond literal observation.

b. The Existence and Order of the Universe 

The existence of the universe is a phenomenon that provides evidence for the existence of God. Swinburne finds the existence of the universe a striking fact that calls out to be explained. Science can explain the occurrence of one state of affairs by a previous state of affairs. Hence, it might explain why planets occupy their present position in the solar system by a previous state of the system, say, the sun and the planets being where they were last year. However, science cannot explain why there are states of affairs. Science cannot explain why the universe exists.

A second phenomenon is the operation of general laws of nature. The universe conforms to general laws of nature. Science identifies general laws of nature, but cannot account for why general laws of nature exist. The explanatory power of science is limited. Swinburne’s intellectual project is concerned with a question derived from a totally different category of inquiry: why do such things exist? He maintains that two types of explanation are available to human beings to explain phenomena: scientific explanation and personal explanation.

Scientific explanation entails the operation of general laws of nature and reference to states of affairs; it does not account for the existence of an orderly universe. Personal explanation accounts for phenomena with reference to persons and purposes. Thus a person may cause their hand to move for the purpose of writing a paper or a cup may be placed on a table for the purpose of drinking from it. Either there is a personal explanation for the universe or there is no explanation. Theism is a hypothesis that proposes God exists, created the universe, and sustains it in its orderly operation. God is the simplest hypothesis or theory for the fact of the universe. God is conceived (analogously) as a person that acts with a purpose. He acts directly on the universe as we act directly on our brains. The universe is not God’s body since He could destroy it at any moment, act on another universe, or do without it

c. The Evolution of Animals and Human Beings 

Swinburne accepts Darwin’s theory of natural selection to explain the development of human beings and animals. Evolutionary theory is compatible with theism. Darwin’s theory has two explanatory limitations. First, it cannot explain what gives rise to the operation of the principles that determine the development of human beings and animals. The existence and creative action of God constitutes the best explanation for these phenomena. God has an obvious reason for creating human beings. He wants to make creatures that will share in His creative activity by making choices that affect the environment in which they live and the other creatures that also inhabit the world. The fact of a process to create human beings is evidence that there is a God behind the process. Second, Darwin’s theory only accounts for physical changes. Human beings also have thoughts and feelings. They experience desires, formulate beliefs, and make choices. These mental events are different from physical events that can be observed. Physical objects act on our senses and cause electrical activity in the brain. These brain-events precipitate sensations (color, pain, and smell), thoughts, desires, and beliefs. Mental events are mainly caused by brain-events, but are distinct from them. Swinburne thinks it is highly unlikely that science will ever be capable of explaining why brain-events give rise to mental events. Science’s ability to probe human consciousness is limited. Theism, on the other hand, can adequately account for correlations between brain-events and mental-events. God is responsible for certain brain-events causing certain mental-events. Swinburne presupposes a commitment to substance dualism in his argument about the nature of human beings and God’s interaction with them.

d. Miracles and Religious Experience

A miracle is a temporary suspension or violation of a law of nature. Some reports of miraculous events are no doubt false and some ‘miraculous’ occurrences subsequently are explained as human knowledge of the universe expands. Yet, some events really are violations of laws of nature. The resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead is the supreme example of a miracle. God intervened in human history and raised Jesus Christ from the dead. Good historical evidence can be adduced to substantiate this claim. A scientific explanation cannot account for such a violation of the laws of nature. Theism can explain the resurrection of Jesus Christ. There is good reason to suppose that God would raise Jesus Christ from the dead to indicate His acceptance of Christ’s atoning sacrifice. The resurrection of Christ functions as God’s vindication of Christ.

Theism also explains individual religious experience. History is replete with examples of human beings sensing the presence of God with them to guide them. In defense of his appeal to religious experience as evidence for the existence of God, Swinburne invokes a principle of credulity, namely, that we should trust appearances unless we have reason not to. Someone that believes they are having an experience of God should regard it as so unless they have good reasons to doubt it.

The arguments marshaled by Swinburne in the first phase of his philosophical project to justify theism are arguments for the existence of one divine being. The God he postulates is a person upon whom the universe depends for its existence. Such a view of God is consistent with the traditional beliefs of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Swinburne acknowledges that a conception of God as a single divine being is a simplification of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Ibid., 344). In publications subsequent to his trilogy on justifying theism Swinburne turned his attention to justifying and explaining cardinal doctrines of Christian theology.

Faith and Reason

Swinburne distinguishes between belief and faith in Faith and Reason (1981). Belief is cognitive assent that a proposition is true. The concept entails “believing so-and-so more probable (or more likely) than such-and-such” (Swinburne, 1981, 4). Belief is relative to alternatives. The normal alternative to belief is its negation. “The negation of ‘there is a God’ is ‘there is not God’” (Ibid., 4). “In both the New Testament and early Christian writing both belief-that of some kind [cognitive assent that a proposition is true] and trust in God, involving acting on assumptions is commended “ (Ibid., 121). However, most of the words translated into English as “faith” or “believe in” are better translated as “trust” and “put trust in”. Conversion to Christianity entailed people changing the beliefs they assented to cognitively and the object of their trust. The church never dogmatically defined what beliefs were involved in faith. Swinburne conjectures that in the early centuries of Christianity people assumed that “Christianity was being contrasted with various other religions and philosophical systems” (Ibid., 123), and implicitly adopted the kinds of beliefs that came to be expressed in the early creeds. Faith is personal trust in God that presupposes assent to certain propositions and issues in action based on these beliefs.

The Evolution of the Soul

Swinburne rejects materialist explanations that reduce humans to being no more than sophisticated material objects in The Evolution of the Soul (1986). He advocates a form of substance dualism, a view that he finds in the philosophies of Plato and Descartes. Human beings consist of two substances, two entities: a soul (thoughts and feelings) and a body (mass and shape). His case for substance dualism is based upon his analysis of (i) human consciousness and (ii) the limitations of science to explain human consciousness. Human consciousness manifests physical and mental properties. Brain events, which are physical events, interact with mental events, although they are distinct. Science cannot account for the activity evident in human consciousness. The mental properties in human consciousness are best explained by the existence of a soul in addition to the physical body. Substance dualism describes human beings as they really are and is relevant to the Christian hope of life after death:

The theory of the evolved human soul which I have been advocating in this book is, I believe, that of the Bible. Both Old and New Testament hold that a man is a thing of flesh and bone….When in the last century BC many Jews came to believe in life after death, and when the Christian religion arose within Judaism affirming life after death, the life which they affirmed was not a natural immortality, but a resurrection – God intervening in history to give to Christ or to all men new bodies and thereby new life (Swinburne, 1986 [Revised Edition 1997, 311]).

Swinburne rejects Plato’s idea of the soul as an immortal entity that survives death because of some intrinsic quality in it. The New Testament portrays a resurrection of the dead, body and soul, caused by divine action. God intends for a human soul to be embodied in this life and in life beyond death. A soul can only survive or function apart from a body by a special act of God.

Responsibility and Atonement

In Responsibility and Atonement (1989) Swinburne articulates a framework of objective moral goodness and badness to describe the nature of the moral relation between God and human beings. Children owe a debt of gratitude to parents for caring for them until they are mature enough to lead independent lives. God is a benefactor to human beings through His creation and sustaining of the universe. Human beings owe their existence to the creative power of God and properly owe a debt of gratitude, an obligation of duty to Him. They are totally dependent upon God and owe God a good life. Duty towards God includes basic duties towards fellow human beings. Human beings are moral agents accountable to God for “their intentional actions that are not causally necessitated in all their detail by prior causes” (Swinburne, 1989, 63). Human beings possess a libertarian free will, which means freedom in the sense of the power to make a choice or to refuse to do so. Swinburne rejects contemporary notions of sin as alienation as too vague. Sin is “failure in a duty to God” (Ibid., 124). Original sin refers to a human proneness to sin. Since God seeks the eternal wellbeing of human beings and desires friendship with them, He makes atonement through the death of Jesus Christ on the cross. The New Testament image of sacrifice provides the most satisfactory model of what God accomplished in the life and death of Jesus Christ. Christ supplies a sacrifice that human beings can offer to God. In the life and death of Jesus Christ God makes an offering available to human beings that they can present as reparation and penance on their own behalf. We can make use of Christ’s offering to remove sin by making repentance and offering an apology to God. The benefits of what Christ has done for us are appropriated in the pledges people make before being initiated into the church in baptism and before receiving the Eucharist.

Revelation 

Swinburne believes a good case can be made for the probability of the existence of God by utilizing human reason, a project attempted in his trilogy on the philosophy of theism. However, revelation is necessary for human beings, because they cannot deduce all that they need to know about God unaided. The Christian tradition affirms that God has revealed truths of vital importance to human beings to show them how to lead their lives:

Divine revelation may be either of God, or by God, of propositional truth. Christianity has claimed that the Christian revelation has involved both: God became incarnate and was in some degree made manifest on Earth, and through that incarnate life various propositional truths were announced (Swinburne, 1992, 2).

Swinburne is primarily concerned with propositional revelation. A proposition is a claim about the nature of reality that can be expressed in different sentences, which are synonymous in meaning. A distinction exists between original revelation and the witnesses to it. The teaching spoken in the words of Jesus constitutes original revelation and was propositional in form. They were words spoken by God incarnate.

The Christian God

Swinburne affirms the doctrine of the Trinity, the claim that God is ‘three persons (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) in one substance,’ and the doctrine of the incarnation, the belief that one of the three persons (the Son) became incarnate in a particular moment in time in a human being, Jesus Christ. In The Christian God (1994), Swinburne builds on his earlier work justifying theism to contend that,

there exists necessarily and eternally a person essentially bodiless, omnipresent, creator and sustainer of any universe there may be, perfectly free, omnipotent, omniscient, perfectly good, and a source of moral obligation (Swinburne, 1994b, 125).

God is a person in the sense that He has beliefs and can perform intentional actions. To talk of God as a person entails an analogical use of language. God is bodiless. He may choose to assume a body, but He is in no way dependent upon a body. God is omnipresent in the sense that He can act intentionally anywhere without any intermediary. God can act directly on the world in the way we can act directly on our brains. He can know what is happening anywhere without intermediary. The universe exists because God created it and sustains it. God is perfectly free in the sense that nothing acts externally upon God to compel Him to any course of action. “God is guided by rational considerations alone” (Ibid., 128). Swinburne believes that God is omnipotent in that He succeeds in whatever he chooses to do. God cannot do what is logically impossible. Swinburne places limits on divine omniscience. God knows everything that happened in the past and knows everything that is happening at any given moment in time. God does not possess foreknowledge otherwise He would have no freedom to act in the future. God is perfectly good and acts in a manner consistent with His goodness.

Swinburne makes an a priori argument for the necessity of the doctrine of the Trinity that adds support to the argument based upon revelation. Nothing from without affects what a divine being does. Reason alone influences how a divine individual acts. More than one divine individual is a possibility if it is necessary for the first divine individual to bring about the existence of a second divine individual. Christianity has shown the world that love is a supreme good, and love entails sharing with another and giving to another (Ibid., 177). Therefore the Father brings about the existence of the Son on the basis of an “overriding reason” (Ibid.) grounded in the divine nature, which is in essence love. Love also entails two parties working together for the benefit of a third party. Hence the bringing into existence of a third divine individual is consistent with the character of love. Bringing about the existence of a second divine individual and a third divine individual are construed by Swinburne as inevitable actions or actions of essence (i.e. actions springing form the intrinsic nature of love, defined in terms of sharing and cooperation, which is central to the nature of God).

The doctrine of the Trinity interpreted in a particular way follows from the a priori argument. Historically, the doctrine of the Trinity claims that there is only one God that exists as three individuals each of whom is God. Christianity has denied any doctrine of tritheism or the existence of three gods. Swinburne believes that the Council of Constantinople in 381 rejected any notion that there were three independent divine beings that could exist or act without each other. “The claim that ‘there is only one God’ is to be read as the claim that the source of being of all other things has to it this kind of indivisible unity” (Ibid., 181). Early Church theologians applied the concept of creation to the bringing about of something by an act of will. The notion of ‘creation’ was not applied to the Trinity. The Son is ‘begotten’ by the Father and the Spirit is ‘generated’ as a cooperative act by the Father and the Son. Divine individuals are individuated by properties beyond those essential to their divinity. These properties are properties of relation between the divine individuals; they are causal relations. “Divine individuals will have to differ in the way in which they are mutually dependent on each other” (Ibid., 177).

Does God need to become incarnate to make reconciliation possible for human beings? Swinburne thinks that God could forgive penitent human beings without any need for an act of atonement. There is no need for God to become incarnate. However, God has three main reasons for voluntarily choosing to become incarnate: to provide a means of atonement by living a perfect human life, identify with our suffering, and show us how to live and encourage us to live. “A perfectly good God would judge it a good thing to share the pain and suffering to which he subjects us for the sake of greater goods – by becoming incarnate” (Ibid., 220).

Providence and the Problem of Evil

Providence and the Problem of Evil (1998) proposes a theodicy or account of human suffering in relation to God. God’s identification with human suffering is a response to the problem of evil and the fact of human suffering. Swinburne’s view of God as an omnipotent being means that God is ultimately responsible for making human beings subject to pain and suffering of different types caused by other human beings and natural causes. God’s perfect goodness leads Swinburne to conclude that God would not have permitted human beings to be subject to pain and suffering unless it served some greater good purposes. He also invokes the free will defense. Human beings are moral agents accountable to God. They owe God a good life, but are prone to sin. Sin is wronging God. The possibility of sin is necessary if human beings are to develop in character and to have the opportunity to serve one another in the context of a dangerous and unpredictable world. Swinburne’s Theodicy is predicated on the assumption that it is more important to be good than happy. Both states are desirable, but the former is ultimately a greater good.

The Resurrection of God Incarnate

In The Resurrection of God Incarnate (2003), Richard Swinburne argues that the historical evidence available to contemporary scrutiny adds up to a compelling case for the claim that Jesus of Nazareth was God incarnate and he rose from the dead:

The initial topic of this book is the examination of the evidence for the core physical element of the Resurrection of Jesus understood in the traditional sense – of Jesus being dead for thirty-six hours and then coming to life again in his crucified body (in which he then had superhuman powers; e.g. he was able to appear and disappear)….The Jesus who died and is risen is Jesus Christ, Messiah and the Word of God, the second person of the Trinity. His resurrection constitutes God the Father’s acceptance of the sacrifice of Jesus on the Cross for the sins of the world; and the initiation of a process of redeeming humanity an nature in respects both physical and spiritual. (Swinburne, 2003, 1)

Swinburne’s argument is unusual for the high level of importance he attaches to what Jesus taught and his manner of life. He chides New Testament scholars who disregard such evidence in their evaluations of the material relating to the resurrection of Jesus from the dead (Ibid., 3). The book is divided into four parts. The first part considers the kind of evidence we would expect if God did indeed become incarnate. Part two examines the life and teaching of Jesus. Part three considers the actual evidence for the resurrection as an event such as the appearances of the risen Jesus and the empty tomb. Swinburne engages with alternative explanations for what happened and concludes with a reflection on the meaning of the resurrection. Finally, Swinburne summarizes the balance of probability in favor of the thesis that Jesus as God incarnate was indeed raised from the dead.

5. Relation to Other Thinkers

Swinburne rejects philosophies that deny the possibility of metaphysical reality and theologies that have no place for reason. In his opinion unconvincing philosophical assumptions and models of the universe originating in Hegel, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, and especially Kierkegaard, for whom, from Swinburne’s point of view, the choice of world-view is a very irrational matter, influenced many of the theological systems created by European continental theologians in the middle of the twentieth century. Swinburne’s body of work is characterized by minimal engagement with contemporary theology. He has entered into dialogue with fellow philosophers of religions such as John Hick and Alvin Plantiga.

6. Bibliography and Cited Works

Padgett, Alan G., Editor. 1994. Reason and the Christian Religion: Essays in Honour of Richard Swinburne. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The books marked * have an entry in Oxford Scholarship Online, featuring an abstract of each book and the full text of each chapter.

Swinburne, Richard. 1968. Space and Time. London: MacMillan and Co.

            . 1971. The Concept of Miracle. London: MacMillan and Co. Second Edition 1981. London: MacMillan and Co.

            . 1973. An Introduction to Confirmation Theory. London: Methuen.

            . 1977. The Coherence of Theism. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Revised Edition 1993. Oxford: Clarendon Press.*

            . 1979. The Existence of God, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Revised Edition 1991. Oxford: Clarendon Press.* Second Edition 2004. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

            . 1981. Faith and Reason. Oxford: Clarendon Press.* Second Edition 2005. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

            . 1984. Personal Identity. (With Sydney Shoemaker) Oxford: Blackwells.

            . 1986. The Evolution of the Soul. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Revised Edition 1997. Oxford: Clarendon Press.*

            . 1989. Responsibility and Atonement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.*

            . 1991. Revelation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.*

            . 1994a. “Intellectual Autobiography” in Reason and the Christian Religion: Essays in Honour of Richard Swinburne. Edited by Alan G. Padgett. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

            . 1994b. The Christian God. Oxford: Clarendon Press.*

            . 1996. Is There a God? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

            . 1998. Providence and the Problem of God. Oxford: Clarendon Press.*

            . 2001. Epistemic Justification. Oxford: Clarendon Press.*

            . 2003. The Resurrection of God Incarnate. Oxford: Clarendon Press.*

7. Internet Resources

Richard Swinburne’s home page at the University of Oxford. The site includes a comprehensive list of his books and articles. Several papers in pdf format are also available including a response to Richard Dawkins’ criticisms in The God Delusion.

Swinburne on Wikipedia

Swinburne on the Gifford Lectures website for his 1982-1984 lectures: The Evolution of the Soul

The Justification of Theism is a concise, simplified version of The Existence of God written by Richard Swinburne for the LeaderU website.

A detailed review of Is There a God? by Gert Korthof

Richard Dawkins dismisses Swinburne’s Is There a God?

8. Related Topics

[Forthcoming]

 

Author: Julian Gotobed

 

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