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MEMS and Metamaterials: A Perfect Marriage at Terahertz Frequencies

Metamaterials have ignited a world-wide flurry of research based in part on the realization of negative refractive index, and the idea of coordinate-transformation design of materials leading to exotic phenomena such as electromagnetic cloaking or energy concentration. The implementation of such ideas is exciting, but is most likely a long-term proposition in terms real-world applications. Briefly, metamaterials are sub-wavelength composites where the electromagnetic response originates from oscillating electrons in highly conducting metals such as gold or copper allowing for a design specific resonant response of the electrical permittivity or magnetic permeability. This is especially important for the technologically relevant terahertz frequency regime where there is a strong need to create components to realize applications ranging from spectroscopic identification of hazardous materials to noninvasive imaging. Our work has been focusing on the development of functional THz metamaterial structures and devices using MEMS technologies, which show extreme power at the micro scale level.

Representative Publications (#denotes graduate students/postdocs supervised by X. Zhang; *denotes corresponding author by X. Zhang; +denotes contributed equally.)

B. Pein, W. Chang, H.Y. Hwang#, J.M. Scherer, I. Coropceanu, X. Zhao#, X. Zhang, V. Bulovic, M.G. Bawendi, K.A. Nelson, "Terahertz-Driven Luminescence and Colossal Stark Effect in CdSe:CdS Colloidal Quantum Dots," Nano Letters, 2017, 17(9): 5375-5380. [DOI]

M. Wu#+, X. Zhao#+, J. Zhang, K. Cremin, J. Schalch, G. Duan#, R.D. Averitt*, X. Zhang*, "A Three-Dimensional All-Metal Terahertz Metamaterial Perfect Absorber," Applied Physics Letters, 2017, 111(5): 051101(5pp). [DOI]

G.R. Keiser, J. Zhang, X. Zhao#, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Terahertz Saturable Absorption in Superconducting Metamaterials," Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 2016, 33(12): 2649-2655. [DOI]

Y. Wang#, X. Zhao#, G. Duan#, X. Zhang*, "Broadband Extraordinary Terahertz Transmission through Super-aligned Carbon Nanotubes Film," Optics Express, 2016, 24(14): 15730-15741. [DOI]

X. Zhao#, K. Fan#, J. Zhang, G.R. Keiser, G. Duan#, R.D. Averitt*, X. Zhang*, "Voltage-Tunable Dual-Layer Terahertz Metamaterials," Microsystems & Nanoengineering - Nature, 2016, 2: 16025(8pp). [DOI; Featured Article]

X. Zhao#+, J. Zhang+, K. Fan#, G. Duan#, G.D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Nonlinear Terahertz Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers Using GaAs," Photonics Research, 2016, 4(3): A16-A21. [DOI]

H.R. Seren#, J. Zhang, G.R. Keiser, S.J. Maddox, X. Zhao#, K. Fan#, S.R. Bank, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Nonlinear Terahertz Devices Utilizing Semiconducting Plasmonic Metamaterials," Light: Science & Applications - Nature, 2016, 5: 16078(7pp). [DOI]

Y. Wang#, Y. Tong, X. Zhang*, "Transmission Properties of Terahertz Waves through Asymmetric Rectangular Aperture Arrays on Carbon Nanotube Films," AIP Advances, 2016, 6(4): 045304(7pp). [DOI]

M. Liu, K. Fan#, W.J. Padilla, D.A. Powell, X. Zhang, I.V. Shadrivov, "Tunable Meta-Liquid Crystals," Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(8): 1553-1558. [DOI; Cover Image]

J. Zhang+, X. Zhao#+, K. Fan#, X. Wang#, G-F Zhang, K. Geng, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Terahertz Radiation-Induced Sub-Cycle Field Electron Emission Across a Split-Gap Dipole Antenna," Applied Physics Letters, 2015, 107(23): 231101(4pp). [DOI; Cover Image]

H.Y. Hwang#, S. Fleischer, N.C. Brandt, B.G. Perkins, M.C. Hoffmann, M. Liu, K. Fan#, A. Sternbach, X. Zhang, R.D. Averitt, K.A. Nelson, "A Review of Non-Linear Terahertz Spectroscopy with Ultrashort Tabletop-Laser Pulses," Journal of Modern Optics, 2015, 62(18): 1447-1479. [DOI]

X. Zhao#, K. Fan#, J. Zhang, H.R. Seren#, G.D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, R.D. Averitt*, X. Zhang*, "Optically Tunable Metamaterial Perfect Absorber on Highly Flexible Substrate," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2015, 231: 74-80. [DOI]

S.M. Teo, C.A. Werley, C. Wang#, K. Fan#, B.K. Ofori-Okai, X. Zhang, R.D. Averitt, K.A. Nelson, "Visualization of Guided and Leaky Wave Behaviors in an Indium Tin Oxide Metallic Slab Waveguide," Optics Express, 2015, 23(11): 14876-14896. [DOI]

H.R. Seren#, G.R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, G.D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber," Advanced Optical Materials, 2014, 2(12): 1221-1226. [DOI]

G.R. Keiser, H.R. Seren#, A.C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Structural Control of Metamaterial Oscillator Strength and Electric Field Enhancement at Terahertz Frequencies," Applied Physics Letters, 2014, 105(8): 081112(5pp). [DOI]

K. Fan#, X. Zhao#, J. Zhang, G.R. Keiser, H.R. Seren#, G.D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Optically Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials on Highly Flexible Substrates," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 2013, 3(6): 702-708. [DOI]

G.R. Keiser, K. Fan#, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Towards Dynamic, Tunable, and Nonlinear Metamaterials via Near Field Interactions: A Review," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 2013, 34(11): 709-723. [DOI]

G.R. Keiser, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, V. Young, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Decoupling Crossover in Asymmetric Broadside Coupled Split Ring Resonators at Terahertz Frequencies," Physical Review B, 2013, 88(2): 024101(5pp). [DOI]

K. Fan#, H.Y. Hwang#, M. Liu, A.C. Strikwerda, A. Sternbach, J. Zhang, X. Zhao#, X. Zhang, K.A. Nelson, R.D. Averitt, "Nonlinear Terahertz Metamaterials via Field-Enhanced Carrier Dynamics in GaAs," Physical Review Letters, 2013, 110(21): 217404(5pp). [DOI]

K. Fan#, A.C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Three-Dimensional Broadband Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials," Physical Review B - Rapid Communications, 2013, 87(16): 161104(4pp). [DOI; Kaleidoscope]

M. Liu+, H.Y. Hwang#+, H. Tao#, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, G.R. Keiser, A.J. Sternbach, K.G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S.A. Wolf, F.G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K.A. Nelson, R.D. Averitt, "Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial," Nature, 2012, 487(7407): 345-348. [DOI]

N. Kumar, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, X. Zhang, R.D. Averitt, P.C.M. Planken, A.J.L. Adam, "THz Near-Field Faraday Imaging in Hybrid Metamaterials," Optics Express, 2012, 20(10): 11277-11287. [DOI]

C.A. Werley, K. Fan#, A.C. Strikwerda, S.M. Teo, X. Zhang, R.D. Averitt, K.A. Nelson, "Time-Resolved Imaging of Near-Fields in THz Antennas and Direct Quantitative Measurement of Field Enhancements," Optics Express, 2012, 20(8): 8551-8567. [DOI]

K. Fan#, A.C. Strikwerda, R.D. Averitt*, X. Zhang*, "Three-Dimensional Magnetic Terahertz Metamaterials Using a Multilayer Electroplating Technique," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2012, 22(4): 045011(9pp). [DOI; Cover Image]

W.-C. Chen, A. Totachawattana, K. Fan#, J.L. Ponsetto, A.C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, R.D. Averitt, W.J. Padilla, "Single-Layer Terahertz Metamaterials with Bulk Optical Constants," Physical Review B, 2012, 85(3): 035112(6pp). [DOI]

K. Iwaszczuk, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, X. Zhang, R.D. Averitt, P. Uhd Jepsen, "Flexible Metamaterial Absorbers for Stealth Applications at Terahertz Frequencies," Optics Express, 2012, 20(1): 635-643. [DOI]

Y. Minowa, M. Nagai, H. Tao#, K. Fan#, A.C. Strikwerda, X. Zhang, R.D. Averitt, K. Tanaka, "Extremely Thin Metamaterial as Slab Waveguide at Terahertz Frequencies," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 2011, 1(2): 441-449. [DOI]

H. Tao#, E.A. Kadlec, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, W.J. Padilla, R.D. Averitt, E.A. Shaner, X. Zhang*, "Microwave and Terahertz Wave Sensing with Metamaterials," Optics Express, 2011, 19(22): 21620-21626. [DOI; Highlight in Science]

A.C. Strikwerda, R.D. Averitt*, K. Fan#, X. Zhang*, G.D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback*, "Electromagnetic Composite-Based Reflecting Terahertz Waveplates," International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, 2011, 20(3): 583-588. [DOI]

H. Tao#, L. Chieffo, M.A. Brenckle, S.M. Siebert, M. Liu, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, D.L. Kaplan, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, F.G. Omenetto*, "Metamaterials on Paper as a Sensing Platform," Advanced Materials, 2011, 23(28): 3197-3201. [DOI]

K. Fan#, A.C. Strikwerda, H. Tao#, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Stand-Up Magnetic Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies," Optics Express, 2011, 19(13): 12619-12627. [DOI]

E. Ekmekci, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, G. Keiser, X. Zhang, G. Turhan-Sayan, R.D. Averitt, "Frequency Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials Using Broadside Coupled Split-Ring Resonators," Physical Review B, 2011, 83(19): 193103(4pp). [DOI]

H. Tao#, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, W.J. Padilla, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "MEMS Based Structurally Tunable Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 2011, 32(5): 580-595. [DOI]

H. Tao#, W.J. Padilla, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Recent Progress in Electromagnetic Metamaterial Devices for Terahertz Applications," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 2011, 17(1): 92-101. [DOI]

H. Tao#, A.C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J.P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan#, D.L. Kaplan, W.J. Padilla, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, F.G. Omenetto*, "Performance Enhancement of Terahertz Metamaterials on Ultrathin Substrates for Sensing Applications," Applied Physics Letters, 2010, 97(26): 261909(3pp). [DOI]

H. Tao#, C.M. Bingham, D.V. Pilon, K. Fan#, A.C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W.J. Padilla, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "A Dual Band Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2010, 43(22): 225102(5pp). [DOI]

H. Tao#, J.J. Amsden, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, D.L. Kaplan, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, F.G. Omenetto*, "Metamaterial Silk Composites at Terahertz Frequencies," Advanced Materials, 2010, 22(32): 3527-3531. [DOI; Cover Image]

H. Tao#, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, W.J. Padilla, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Reconfigurable Terahertz Metamaterials," Physical Review Letters, 2009, 103(14): 147401(4pp). [DOI]

A.C. Strikwerda+, K. Fan#+, H. Tao#, D.V. Pilon, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Comparison of Birefringent Electric Split-Ring Resonator and Meanderline Structure as Quarter-Wave Plates at Terahertz Frequencies," Optics Express, 2009, 17(1): 136-149. [DOI]

H. Tao#, C.M. Bingham, A.C. Strikwerda, D.V. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N.I. Landy, K. Fan#, X. Zhang*, W.J. Padilla, R.D. Averitt*, "Highly Flexible Wide Angle of Incidence Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber: Design, Fabrication, and Characterization," Physical Review B - Rapid Communications, 2008, 78(24): 241103(4pp). [DOI]

H. Tao#, A.C. Strikwerda, K. Fan#, C.M. Bingham, W.J. Padilla, X. Zhang*, R.D. Averitt*, "Terahertz Metamaterials on Free-Standing Highly-Flexible Polyimide Substrates," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2008, 41(23): 232004(5pp). [DOI]

C.M. Bingham, H. Tao#, X. Liu, R.D. Averitt, X. Zhang, W.J. Padilla, "Planar Wallpaper Group Metamaterials for Novel Terahertz Applications," Optics Express, 2008, 16(23): 18565-18575. [DOI; Highlight in Nature; Highlight in MRS Bulletin]

H. Tao#+, N.I. Landy+, C.M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R.D. Averitt, W.J. Padilla, "A Metamaterial Absorber for the Terahertz Regime: Design, Fabrication and Characterization," Optics Express, 2008, 16(10): 7181-7188. [DOI; Highlight by Sicience; Highlight in Nature]

Ph.D. Dissertations

Xiaoguang Zhao, "Active Metamaterial Devices at Terahertz Frequencies," Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University. (Advisor: Xin Zhang; September 2016)

Huseyin Seren, "Optically Controlled Metamaterial Absorbers in the Terahertz Regime," Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University. (Advisor: Xin Zhang; September 2014)

Kebin Fan, "Three-Dimensional and Nonlinear Metamaterials at Terahertz Frequencies," Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University. (Advisor: Xin Zhang; May 2012)

Hu Tao, "MEMS Enhanced Metamaterials: Towards Filling the Terahertz Gap," Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University. (Advisor: Xin Zhang; May 2010)

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