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1. U. B. Pal, T. Deb Roy and G. Simkovich, “Interfacial Effects in Gaseous Reduction of PbO-SiO2 Melts,” Metallurgical Transactions, 14B, (1983), p. 693.

2. U. B. Pal, T. Deb Roy and G. Simkovich, “Effects of P2O5­ as a Surface Active Agent on Gaseous Reduction of PbO-SiO2 Melts,” Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (Section C: Mineral Processes and Extractive Metallurgy), 93, (1984), p. 112.

3. U. B. Pal, T. Deb Roy and G. Simkovich, “Electrical Conductivity of PbO-SiO2 Liquids Containing Lead Precipitates,” Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 23(3), (1984), p. 295.

4. U. B. Pal, T. Deb Roy and G. Simkovich, “Electronic and Ionic Transport in Liquid PbO-SiO2 Systems,” Metallurgical Transactions, 16B, (1985), p. 77.

5. U. B. Pal, T. Deb Roy and G. Simkovich, “Oxygen-Pressure Dependence of Pb Ion Transport in PbO-SiO2 Melts,” J. American Ceramic Society, 68(4), (1985), p. 104.

6. U. B. Pal and B. V. Patil, “Role of Dissolved Oxygen during Injection Desulfurization with Lime- and Carbide-Based Reagents,” Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 13(6), (1986), p. 294.

7. U. B. Pal and B. V. Patil, “Fundamental Studies on the Deoxidation of Low Carbon Steels with Fe-Si,” Metallurgical Transactions, 18B, (1987), p. 583.

8. U. B. Pal and S. C. Singhal, “Growth Mechanism of Perovskite Films by Electrochemical Vapor Deposition,” J. High Temperature Science, 267, (1990), p. 251.

9. U. B. Pal and S. C. Singhal, “Electrochemical Vapor Deposition of Stabilized Zirconia Films,” J. Electrochemical Society, 137(9), (1990), p. 2937.

10. U. B. Pal and K. C. Chou, “Analysis of Solid-State Transport Involved in the Electrochemical Vapor Deposition of Binary and Ternary Oxides,” J. High Temperature Science, 32, (1991), p. 23.

11. U. B. Pal, “Electrochemical Vapor Deposition of Solid Oxide Films,” Solid State Ionics, 52, (1992), p. 227.

12. G. G. Krishnamurthy, A. Hasham, and U. B. Pal, “Reduction Rates of FeO in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-X Slags by Fe-C Droplets,” Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 20(3), (1993), p. 191.

13. K. C. Chou, U. B. Pal and R. G. Reddy, “A General Model for BOP Decarburization,” ISIJ International, 33(8), (1993), p. 862.

14. F. Patsiogiannis, M. B. Mourao, U. B. Pal, and R. Bogan, “Kinetic Studies on the Deoxidation of Low Carbon Steel with Al and Fe-Al,” Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 20(5), (1993), p. 366.

15. F. Patsiogiannis, U. B. Pal, and R. Bogan, “Laboratory Scale Refining Studies on Low Carbon Aluminum-Killed Steels Using Synthetic Fluxes,” ISIJ International, 34(2), (1994), p. 140.

16. S. Yuan, U. B. Pal and K. C. Chou, “Deoxidation of Molten Metals by Short Circuiting Yttria-Stabilized Electrolyte Cell,” J. Electrochemical Society, 141(2), (1994), p. 467.

17. G. G. Krishna Murthy, A. Hasham, U. B. Pal, “Removal of FeO during Foaming of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO Slags by Low Carbon Melts,” ISIJ International, 34(5), (1994), p. 408.

18. F. Patsiogiannis, U. B. Pal, and R. Bogan, “Kinetic Studies on the Desulfurization of Aluminum-Killed Low Carbon Steel Using Synthetic Fluxes,” Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 33(4), (1994), p. 305.

19. Z. Hasham, U. B. Pal, K. C. Chou and W. L. Worrell, “Deoxidation of Molten Steel by Short Circuiting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell,” J. Electrochemical Society, 141(2), (1995), p. 469.

20. S. Yuan, U. B. Pal and K. C. Chou, “Modeling and Scaleup of Galvanic Deoxidation of Molten Metals Using Solid Electrolyte Cells,” J. American Ceramic Society, 79(3), (1996), p. 641.

21. F. Patsiogiannis and U. B. Pal “Incorporation of Sulfur in an Optimized Ladle Steelmaking Slag," ISIJ International, 36(4), (1996), p. 402.

22. F. Patsiogiannis, U. B. Pal and K. C. Chou, "Incorporation of Chlorine in a Secondary Steelmaking Slag Based on the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System," ISIJ International, 36(9), 1996, p. 1119.

23. S. Sridhar and U. B. Pal, “Effect of Slurry Properties on Anode Cermets for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” J. Powder Technology, 88(2), (1996), p. 173.

24. S. Yuan and U. B. Pal, "Analytic Solution for Charge Transport and Chemical-Potential Variation in Single- and Multi-layer Device of Different Mixed-Conducting Oxides,” J. Electrochemical Society, 143(10), (1996), p. 3214.

25. A. Powell, J. Van Den Avyle, B. Damkroger, J. Szekely and U. B. Pal, ``Analysis of Multicomponent Evaporation in Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Titanium Alloys,'' Materials and Metallurgical Transactions, 28B, (1997), p.1227.

26. S. Sridhar, V. Stancovski and U. B. Pal, “Transient and Permanent Effects of Direct Current on Oxygen Transfer Across YSZ-Electrode Interfaces,” J. Electrochemical Society, 144(7), (1997), p. 2479.

27. S. Sridhar, V. Stancovski and U. B. Pal, “Effect of Oxygen-Containing Species on the Impedance of the Platinum/Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Interface,” Solid State Ionics, 100/1-2, (1997), p. 17.

28. K. Chou, S. Sridhar, and U. B. Pal, “Activities and Ternary Phase Diagrams,” CALPHAD, 21(4), (1997), p. 483.

29. P. Soral, U. B. Pal and W. L. Worrell, “Comparison of Power Densities of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Single and Multilayer Oxide Electrolytes,” J. Electrochemical Society, 145(1), (1998), p. 99.

30. D. Woolley and U. B. Pal, “Rate of Reduction of Ferric and Ferrous Oxide from Calcia-Silica-Alumina Slag by Carbon in Liquid Iron,” ISIJ International, 39(2), (1999), p.103.

31. P. Soral and U. B. Pal, “A Pilot Scale Trial of Improved Galvanic Deoxidation Process for Refining Molten Copper,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 30B(2), (1999), p.307.

32. A. Agarwal and U. B. Pal, “Influence of Pellet Composition and Structure on Carbothermic Reduction of Silica,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 30B(2), (1999), p.295.

33. V. Stancovski, S. Sridhar and U. B. Pal, “Thermodynamic Stability and Interfacial Impedance of Solid Electrolyte Cells with Noble-Metal Electrodes,” J. Electroceramics, 3(3), 1999, p.279.

34. D. Simon and U. B. Pal, “Mathematical Modeling of the Melt Pool during an E-Beam PVD Process,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 30B(3), (1999), p. 515.

35. D. Woolley and U. B. Pal, “Experimental Evidence of Electrochemical Reaction between Iron Oxide in CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 Melts and C in Iron and Ways to Enhance the Rate,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 30B(5), (1999), p. 877.

36. S. Sridhar, U. B. Pal and K. C. Chou, “Relationship Between Activity and Three Phase Boundary in Ternary Phase Diagram,” CALPHAD, 23(2), (1999), p. 165.

37. S. B. Britten and U. B. Pal, “Solid State Amperometric Sensor for the In-Situ Monitoring of Slag Composition and Transport Properties,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 31B(4), (2000), p. 733.

38. A. Powell, P. Minson, G. Tapaga and U. Pal, "Mathematical Modeling of Vapor-Plume Focusing in Electron-Beam Evaporation," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 32A(4), (2001), p. 1959.

39. U. B. Pal, D. E. Woolley and G. B. Kenney, "Emerging SOM Technology for the Green Synthesis of Metals from Oxides", Journal of Metals, October 2001, p. 32.

40. U. B. Pal, J. C. MacDonald, E. Chiang, W. C. Chernicoff, K. C. Chou, J. Van Den Avyle, M. A. Molecke, and D. Melgaard, "Behavior of Ceria as an Actinide Surrogate in Electroslag Remelting and Refining Slags", Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 32B, December 2001, p. 1119.

41. D.E. Woolley and U.B. Pal, "Enhancing Rate of Slag-metal reactions involving carbon in liquid iron", Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 29 (2), April 2002, p. 125

42. S. Sridhar, Du Sichen, U.B. Pal, and S. Seetharaman, "Abating Environmentally Harmful Waste Gases," Journal of Metals, May 2002, p. 30.

43. U. B. Pal, "Determining Physico-Chemical Properties of Slags by Electrical Measurements," Journal of Metals, November 2002, p. 57.

44. Wenquan Gong, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Polariization Study on Doped Lanthanum Gallate Electrolyte Using Impedance Spectroscopy", Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 13, No. 3, June 2004, pp. 274-281.

45. Wenquan Gong, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Cathodic Polarization Study on Doped Lanthanum Gallate Electrolyte Using Impedance Spectroscopy", Journal of Electroceramics, vol. 13, (2004), p. 653.

46. Uday B. Pal, Scott A. MacDonald, David W. Woolley, Adam C. Powell, "Results Demonstrating Techniques for Enhancing Electrochemical Reactions Involving Iron Oxide in Slags and C in Liquid Iron", Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, vol. 36B, (2005), p. 209.

47. A. Krishnan, X.G. Lu and U.B. Pal, "Solid Oxide Membrane Process for Magnesium Production directly from Magnesium Oxide", Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, vol. 36B, (2005), p. 463.

48. Wenquan Gong, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Materials System for Intermediate Temperature (600-800°C) Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) Based on Doped Lanthanum-Gallate Electrolyte."J. Electrochemical Society, 152(9), (2005), p. A1890.

49. Hengdong Cui, Annamalai Karthikeyan, Srikanth Gopalan, and Uday B. Pal, "GDC-YSTA Composite Mixed Conductors for Hydrogen Separation", J. Electrochemical Society, 152(9), (2005), p. A1726.

50. A. Krishnan, X.G. Lu and U.B. Pal, "Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Technology for Environmentally Sound Production of Tantalum Metal and Alloys from their Oxide Sources", Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 34 (5), October 2005, p. 293.

51. Hengdong Cui, Annamalai Karthikeyan, Srikanth Gopalan, and Uday B. Pal, "Use of Conductivity Relaxation Experiments to Evaluate Surface-Exchange Catalysts", Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 9(3), (2006) , p. A179

52. Wenquan Gong, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Performance of intermediate temperature (600-800 degrees C) solid oxide fuel cell based on Sr and Mg doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte",
J. Power Sources, 160 (1), Septemeber 2006, p.305.

53. Srikanth Gopalan, Guoshen S. Ye, and Uday B. Pal, "Regenerative, Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Electrolyzers", J. Power Sources, 162 (1), November 2006, p. 74.

54. Kyung Joong Yoon, Wenhua Huang, Guosheng Ye, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Electrochemical Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) Manufactured by Single Step Co-firing Process", J. Electrochemical Society, vol. 154 (4), 2007, p. B389.

55. Kyung Joong Yoon, Peter Zink, Uday B. Pal, Srikanth Gopalan and Don Seccombe, "High-Performance Low-Cost Single-Step Co-fired SOFCs", ECS Transactions 7, 2007, (1) 579.

56. Kyung Joong Yoon, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Anode Polarization Effects in Single Step Cofired SOFCs", ECS Transactions 7, 2007, (1) 565.

57. Kyung Joong Yoon, Wenhua Huang, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Refractory Cathode Investigation for Single-Step Co-fired Solid Oxide Fuel Cells(SOFCs)", ECS Transactions 7, 2007, (1) 399.

58. Wenhua Huang, Srikanth Gopalan, Uday B. Pal, and Soumendra Basu, "Oxidation Studies on Crofer 22 APU Alloy Under Simulated SOFC Operating Conditions", ECS Transactions 7, 2007, (1) 2379.

59. Uday B. Pal and Adam Powell, "Solid Oxide Membrane Technology (SOM) for Electrometallurgy", J. of Metals, 59(5), 2007, p. 44

60. Peter Zink, Kyung J. Yoon, Wenhua Huang, Uday B. Pal, and Srikanth Gopalan, "Refractory Cathode Investigation for Single-Step Co-fired Solid Oxide Fuel Cells", ECS Transactions. 7, 2007, p. 399

61. Kyung Joong Yoon, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Effect of Fuel Composition on Performance of Single Step Co-fired Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)", J. Electrochemical Society, vol. 154, 2007, p. B1080.

62. Kyung Joong Yoon, Peter Zink, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Polarization measurements on single-step co-fired solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)", J. Power Sources, 172 (1), October 2007, p. 39

63. Wenhua Huang, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "Measurement of Partial Oxygen Ion Conductivity of Sr-doped Lanthanum Manganite", J. Power Sources, 173 (2), November 2007, p. 887

64. Hailei Zhao, Xue Li, Feng Ju, Uday Pal, "Effects of particle size of 8mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) and additive Ta2O5 on the phase composition and the microstructure of sintered YSZ electrolyte", Journal of Materials Processing Technology 200, ,2008, p. 199.

65. Uday B. Pal, "A Lower Carbon Foot Print Process for Production of Metals from their Oxide Sources", J. of Metals, 60(2), 2008, p. 36

66. Kyung Joong Yoon, Srikanth Gopalan, Uday B. Pal, "Effect of Anode Active Layer on Performance of Single Step Co-fired Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at High Fuel Utilizations", J. Electrochemical Society, vol. 155 (6), 2008, p. B610.

67. M. Suput,, R. Delucas, S. Pati, G. Ye, U. Pal, and A.C. Powell IV, "Solid Oxide Membrane Technology for Environmentally Sound Production of Titanium", Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, vol. 117, (2), 2008 , p 118.

68. Wenhua Huang, Srikanth Gopalan, Uday B. Pal, and Soumendra N. Basu , "Evaluation of electrophoretically deposited CuMn1.8O4 spinel coatings on Crofer 22 APU for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects ", J. Electrochemical Society, vol. 155 (11), 2008, p. B1161.

69. Kyung Joong Yoon, Srikanth Gopalan, and Uday B. Pal, “Analysis of Electrochemical Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using Polarization Modelling and Impedance Spectroscopy”, J. Electrochemical Society, vol. 156 (3), 2009, p. B311.

70. Kyung Joong Yoon, Peter A. Zink, Srikanth Gopalan, Uday B. Pal,and Larry R. Pederson, "Defect Chemistry and Electrical Properties of (La0.8Ca0.2)0.95FeO3 ", J. Electrochemical Society, vol. 156 (7), 2009, p. B795.

71. Soobhankar Pati, Kyung Joong Yoon, Srikanth Gopalan, and Uday B. Pal, "Hydrogen Production Using Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolyzer with Solid Carbon Reductant in Liquid Metal Anode", J. Electrochemical Society, vol. 156 (9), 2009, p. B1067.

72. Soobhankar Pati, Kyung Joong Yoon, Srikanth Gopalan, and Uday B. Pal, "Electrochemical Characterization of a Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolyzer for Production of High Purity Hydrogen", Metallurgical and Materials Transaction B, Vol. 40 (4), 2009, p. 457.

73. Peter A. Zink, Kyung Joong Yoon, Srikanth Gopalan, and Uday B. Pal, ""Analysis of the Electronic and Ionic Conductivity of Calcium Doped Lanthanum Ferrite", Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 12, 2009, p. B141.

74. Weidong He, Kyung Joong Yoon, Ryan S. Eriksen, Srikanth Gopalan, Soumendra N. Basu, and Uday B. Pal, "Out-of-Cell Measurements of H2-H2O Effective Binary Diffusivity in the Porous Anode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)", J. Power Sources, 195, 2010, p. 532.

75. Kyung Joong Yoon, Guosheng Ye, Srikanth Gopalan, and Uday B. Pal, "Cost-effective Single Step Co-firing Process for Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) using High Shear Compaction (HSC)TM Anode", J. Fuel Cell Science and Technology, vol. 7(2), 2010, p. 1010.

76. Soobhankar Pati, Srikanth Gopalan and Uday B. Pal, "A Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolyzer for Production of Hydrogen and Syn-gas from Steam and Hydrocarbon Waste in a Single Step", International J. Hydrogen Energy, 36, 2011, p. 152.

77. L. F. J. Piper, A. R. H. Preston, S.-W. Cho, A. DeMasi, B. Chen, J. Laverock, K. E. Smith, L. J. Miara, J. N. Davis, S. N. Basu, U. Pal, S. Gopalan, Laxmikant Saraf, Tiffany Kaspar, A. Y. Matsuura, P.-A. Glans, and J.-H. Guo, "Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Study of Dense Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Manganite Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications", J. Electrochemical Society, 158 (2), 2011, p.B99.

78. L.Miara, J.N.Davis, S.Basu, U.B.Pal, and S.Gopalan, "Application of a State-Space Model to Patterned Cathodes of (La0.87Ca0.13)0.95MnO3", J.Electrochem.Soc, 158 (12), 2011, p. B1523.

79. H.Wang, S.Gopalan, and U.B.Pal, "Hydrogen generation and separation using Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9-x-Gd0.08Sr0.88Ti0.95Al0.05O3±x mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes", Electrochimica Acta 56, 2011, p. 6989.

80. L. J. Miara, S. N. Basu, U.B. Pal, and S. Gopalan, " 2D Numerical Model for Identification of Oxygen Reduction Reaction Mechanisms in Patterned Cathodes of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-?", J. Electrochemical Society, 158 (2), 2011, p.B99.

81. R. Haboury, U. B. Pal, P. A. Zink, S. Gopalan, and S. N. Basu, "Study of an Energy Storage and Recovery Concept based on the W/WO3 Redox Reaction Part I. Kinetic Study and Modeling of the WO3 Reduction Process for Energy Storage", Metallurgical and Materials Transaction B, 43 (4), 2012, p. 1001.

82. X. Guan, P. A. Zink, U. B. Pal, and A. C. Powell, "Recycling of Magnesium Alloy Employing Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis", Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 44 (4), 2013, p. 261

83. J. Milshtein, E. Gratz, S.N. Basu, S. Gopalan, and U.B. Pal, "Study of the two-step W/WO3 solar to fuel conversion cycle for syn-gas production", Journal of Power Sources 236, 2013, p. 95.

84. J. Milshtein, E. Gratz, S. Pati, A.C. Powell, and U.B. Pal, "Yttria stabilized zirconia membrane stability in molten fluoride fluxes for low-carbon magnesium production by the SOM process", Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy, 49(2), 2013, p. 183.

85. Guo-Hua Zhang, Kuo-Chih Chou, and Uday Pal, "Estimation of Sulfide Capacities of Multicomponent Slags Using Optical Basicity", ISIJ International, 53(5), 2013, p. 761

86. Eric S. Gratz, Jarrod D. Milshtein, and Uday B. Pal, "Determining Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Stability in Molten Oxy-Fluoride Flux for the Production of Magnesium with the SOM Process", J. Am. Ceram. Soc., DOI: 10.1111/jace.12449, 1-7 (2013)

87. Xiaofei Guan, Uday B. Pal, and Adam C. Powell, "An Environmentally Friendly Process Involving Refning and Membrane-Based Electrolysis for Magnesium Recovery from Partially Oxidized Scrap Alloy", J. of Metals, DOI: 10.1007/s11837-013-0659-3, 65 (10), 2013, p.1285

88. Xiaofei Guan, Uday B. Pal, Srikanth Gopalan, and Adam C. Powell, "LSM (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-?)-Inconel Inert Anode Current Collector for Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis", J. of Electrochemical Society, DOI: 10.1149/2.016311jes, 160 (11), 2013, F.1179

89. E. S. Gratz, X. Guan, J. Milshtein, U.B. Pal, and A.C. Powell, "Mitigating the Electronic Current in Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis for Magnesium Production", Metallurgical and Materials Transaction B, DOI: 10.1007/s11663-014-0060-9 (2014)

90. X. Guan, U.B. Pal, and A.C. Powell, "Environmentally Friendly Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Process for Magnesium Oxide Reduction: Experiment and Modeling", Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E, DOI: 10.1007/s40553-014-0013-x (2014)

91. JiaPeng Xu, Brian Lo, Yihong Jiang, Uday Pal, Soumendra Basu, "Stability of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia in Molten Oxy-fluoride Flux for the Production of Silicon with the Solid Oxide Membrane Process", Journal of the European Ceramic Society, In press, DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2014.04.028