KZKTexas is a time-domain computer code developed at The University
of Texas at Austin to model axisymmetric sound beams in fluids.
The code is based on an augmented KZK equation that accounts for
nonlinearity, diffraction, thermoviscous absorption, and absorption
and dispersion due to an arbitrary number of relaxation phenomena.
Two versions of the code are listed below, one for *unfocused*
sources (KZKTexas1) and the other for *focused* sources
(KZKTexas2). A third code (BurgersTX) uses the same algorithm
but solves for *one-dimensional propagation* (no diffraction)
in an inhomogeneous fluid. The code is written in Fortran 77 and
appears to compile with no problems on most UNIX workstations. A version
that was ported to c++ is provided for focused sources.

The principal references for this code are the following:

- Y.-S. Lee, "Numerical solution of the KZK equation for pulsed finite amplitude sound beams in thermoviscous fluids," Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin (1993).
- Y.-S. Lee and M. F. Hamilton, "Time-domain modeling of pulsed finite-amplitude sound beams," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 97, pp. 906-917 (1995).
- R. O. Cleveland, M. F. Hamilton, and D. T. Blackstock, "Time-domain modeling of finite-amplitude sound in relaxing fluids," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 99, 3312-3318 (1996).

The dissertation by Lee (1993) (10.1 MB PDF) contains the original listing of the code, the description of algorithm, and test cases. Lee's dissertation is summarized in the article by Lee and Hamilton (1995). The article by Cleveland et al. (1996) describes the inclusion of relaxation and other modifications of the code. For further discussion and comparison with other codes see J. H. Ginsberg and M. F. Hamilton, "Computational Methods," Chapter 11 in Nonlinear Acoustics, edited by M. F. Hamilton and D. T. Blackstock (Academic Press, Boston, 1998).

Results from the code have also been reported in the following manuscripts:

- Michalakis A. Averkiou and Mark F. Hamilton, "Nonlinear distortion of short pulses radiated by plane and focused circular pistons", J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 102, pp 2539-2548 (1997).
- M.A. Averkiou and R. O. Cleveland, “Modeling of an electrohydraulic lithotripter with the KZK equation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106: 102—112 (1999).

KZKTexas1 This codes solves the KZK equation on a spreading grid and is appropriate for the radiation from a flat (unfocused) piston.

KZKTexas2 This codes solves the KZK equation on a uniform grid and is configured for focused sources.

BurgersTX This code solves a very general version of the Burgers equation. It is appropriate for one-dimensional nonlinear waves.

- Shock Wave Lithotripsy Acoustic field and animation of the field. for lithotripsy shock waves can be found here.
- Pressure-release reflector Simulations for lithotripsy using full and partial pressure release reflectors.

- Acoustics Group at The University of Texas at Austin
- The Physical Acoustics Laboratory at Boston University

Office of Naval Research

National Aeronautics and Space
Administration

National Institutes of Health

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robinc@bu.edu | http://people.bu.edu/robinc/kzk/ | 2007 |