Symposium Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston, 2002

Kathleen Malley-Morrison, Chair

Kathleen Malley-Morrison

Implicit theories are sort of naïve theories, personal theories about life that we hold but don’t think of as theories. Unlike explicit theories, implicit theories are not derived from empirical scientific research. Previous workers in this social cognitive field have studied implicit theories concerning topics such as intelligence, creativity, wisdom, love, and success. The focus of our research group is on implicit theories of family relationships and abuse. For example, people have different implicit theories as to how family members should interact in order to be a well-functioning family, how husbands should treat their wives in order to have a satisfying marriage, how parents should discipline their children in order to bring them up right. Moreover, we believe that implicit theories concerning appropriate behaviors for men, women, and children in families can be found not just in everybody’s heads, but in various religious texts, governmental documents, and human rights agreements.

Implicit theories are not the same as behavior. Individuals and groups can espouse theories but not act in accordance with them. For example, many countries, including the United States, that have ratified international conventions such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Man but do not necessarily always act in accordance with those conventions

Our research group is very international. While we represent a diversity of national, religious and ethnic groups that have often been at war with each other, we consider ourselves members of the same global family. We also share an implicit theory that international peace and an end to man’s inhumanity to man depend in part on the rejection of violence as a means of solving disputes and achieving goals within families, within the home.

As a group, we have been conducting research on implicit theories of abuse in 20 different countries. Our survey has been translated into 15 different languages, of which 11 are posted on our webpage [TRANSPARENCY]. In addition to collecting data over the internet, we have administered the surveys directly in each of the home countries. [TRANSPARENCY]. In these surveys, we ask respondents to tell us their own definitions of abuse, and to give us examples of severe, moderate, and mild abuse, both in family relationships in general, and in specific family relationships like parent to child.

In this morning’s symposium, we will begin by identifying some of the implicit theories relevant to family roles and relationships that can be found in major written documents—the Qu’ran, the Bible, and international human rights agreements. We will then present findings concerning implicit theories of abuse in three very different countries—Iceland, India, and Greece. For those of you who find the cross-cultural data interesting, I will be leading another symposium in this room at noon with Dr. Murray Straus as a discussant. We are very fortunate to have Dr. Eli Newberger as a discussant at this morning’s symposium. Our first speaker is Majed Ashy.
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Implicit Theories Of Abuse In The Qu’ran

Majed Ashy

Relevant History of The Qu’ran

“Abuse” comes under the concept of "Zulm": violating people's rights or giving them what they do not deserve.

Islam declared
1. Islam came to stop "al zalimeen," or violators of people's rights.

2. "zulm" is one of the biggest crimes and sins,

3. Allah is fair and does not like "al zalimeen."

4. The actions of "al zalimeen" create their own hell fire.

5. Islam came as the intervention of the sky between "al zalim" or the violator and "al mazloom" or the violated.

6. Islam came to support "al mustada'feen" (the ones considered weak) and "al mazlumeen" (the violated people). ["Al mustada'feen" and "mazlumeen" can be women, children, the elderly, the poor, slaves, captives, workers, debtors, the imprisoned, and the public in relation to the government. ]

Muslim scholars emphasize the following:

1) One must distinguish between the normative teachings of Islam and the diverse cultural practices among Muslims, which may or may not be consistent with them.

2) The normative teachings of Islam are the criteria by which Muslim practices should be judged. Not every behavior done by a Muslim is Islamic.

3) In identifying what is "Islamic," it is necessary to make a distinction between the primary sources of Islam (the Qur'an and the Sunnah) and legal opinions of scholars on specific issues, which may vary and be influenced by their times, circumstances, and cultures. Such opinions and verdicts do not enjoy the infallibility accorded to the primary and revelatory sources.

If we consider the sociocultural context that Islam came in, one might say that Islam was a religion that fought for the rights of the oppressed. In fact, Islam took several progressive feminist stands by today's standards. Here are examples of some implicit theories expressed in the Qu’ran that relate to women, children and parents:

1) Islam declared the spiritual and essential equality of men and women. In the Qur'an, God says, "O mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created you from a single soul …Be careful of your duty toward Allah in Whom you claim (your rights) of one another, and towards the wombs (that bore you)." (4:1)

Men and women have the same religious and moral duties and responsibilities. “If any do deeds of righteousness, be they male or female, and have faith, they will enter paradise and not the least injustice will be done to them.” (Qur'an 4:124) “

For Muslim men and women ….for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise, for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.” (Qur'an 33:35)

2) According to the Qur'an, woman is not responsible for the "fall of man." In narrating the story of Adam and Eve, the Qur'an never singles out Eve for blame. Satan deceived both Adam and Eve and brought about their shame. “And their Lord called unto them: ‘Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that Satan was an avowed enemy unto you?’ They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged our own souls: if you forgive us not and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be lost."

3) Islam stated that the creation of women and men and the love between them are signs of His existence. The Qur'an states: "And among His signs is that He created for you mates from among yourselves that you may live in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between you; Verily, in that are signs for people who reflect." (30:21)

4) Islam stated that, in the eyes of God, women's work is as appreciated as men's work " ...So their Lord accepted their prayers, (saying): I will not suffer to be lost the work of any of you whether male or female. You proceed one from another ...(Qur'an 3: 195).

5) Despite the social acceptance of female infanticide among some Arabian tribes before Islam, the Qur'an forbade this custom, stating that the seemingly helpless baby will be given the opportunity to complain. In the Qur’an, infanticide is a crime like any other murder:

"And when the female (infant) buried alive is questioned, for what crime she was killed?" (Qur'an 81:8-9).

6) Criticizing the attitudes of any parents who prefer having sons and feel shame if they have a female child, the Qur'an states sarcastically:

"When news is brought to one of them, of (the birth of) a female (child), his face darkens and he is filled with inward grief! With shame does he hide himself from his people because of the bad news he has had! Shall he retain her on (sufferance) and contempt, or bury her in the dust? Ah! What an evil (choice) they decide on? (Qur'an 16: 58-59).

7) Islam encouraged the good treatment of girls. The prophet said: "Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor his son over her, God will enter him into Paradise. (Ibn Hanbal, No. 1957). "Whosoever supports two daughters till they mature, he and I will come in the day of judgment as this” (and he pointed with his two fingers held together).

8) Islam forbade forcing women into marriages they do want.

Ibn Abbas reported that a girl came to the Messenger of God, Muhammad, and reported that her father had forced her to marry without her consent. The Messenger of God gave her the choice . . between accepting the marriage or invalidating it. (Ibn Hanbal No. 2469).

9) Islam encouraged the good treatment of women in general and wives specifically. "...But consort with them in kindness, for if you hate them it may happen that you hate a thing wherein God has placed much good." (Qur'an 4: l9).

Prophet Muhammad said:
The best of you is the best to his family, and I am the best among you to my family. The most perfect believers are the best in conduct and best of you are those who are best to their wives. (Ibn-Hanbal, No. 7396)

Behold, many women came to Muhammad's wives complaining against their husbands (because they beat them) - - those (husbands) are not the best of you.

"It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them."(The Prophet)

"A Muslim must not hate his wife, and if he be displeased with one bad quality in her, let him be pleased with one that is good."

"The more civil and kind a Muslim is to his wife, the more perfect in faith he is."

"Nor is there a man who walks with his wife hand-in-hand, but that God sets it down as a virtue for him; and if he puts his arm round her shoulder in love, his virtue is increased tenfold." (the Prophet)

10) Islam considered kindness to parents, and specially mothers, next to the worship of God.

"And we have enjoined upon man (to be good) to his parents: His mother bears him in weakness upon weakness..." (Qur'an 31:14) (See also Qur'an 46:15, 29:8).

"Your Lord has decreed that you worship none save Him, and that you be kind to your parents. . ." (Qur'an 17:23).

In another tradition, the Prophet advised a believer not to join the war against the Quraish (i.e., the pagan disbelievers at that time) in defense of Islam, but to look after his mother, saying that his service to his mother would be a cause for his salvation.

11) In an age when widows were rarely permitted to remarry, the Prophet encouraged his followers to marry them. In fact, the prophet himself married several elderly widows.

12) Pregnancy and childbirth are not seen as punishments for "eating from the forbidden tree." On the contrary, the Qur'an considers them to be grounds for the love and respect due to mothers.

13. The Qur'an makes it clear that the sole basis for superiority of any person over another is piety and righteousness not gender, color, or nationality:

“O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know each other. Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (one who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).” (Qur'an 49:13)

14. Islam recognizes the full property rights of women before and after marriage. A married woman keeps her maiden name.

15. Marriage in Islam is based on mutual peace, love, and compassion, not just the satisfaction of man's needs.

16. Islam gave women the right to divorce their husbands. Forms of marriage dissolution include mutual agreement, the husband's initiative, the wife's initiative (if part of her marital contract), court decision on the wife's initiative (for a cause), and the wife's initiative without a "cause" provided that she returns the marital gift to her husband (khul' [divestiture]).

18. Islam gave mothers priority for custody of young children (up to the age of about seven). A child later chooses between his mother and father (for custody purposes). Custody questions are to be settled in a manner that balances the interests of both parents and well being of the child.
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Kimberly A Rapoza


? This paper includes passages from the Old Testament relating to family violence.

? It does not seek to represent or examine the Judaic perspective in depth.

Bohn (1989) operative vs espoused theology:

? What makes the most profound statement about genuine commitment to beliefs is the operative pattern that is seen in either leaders of the church or parishioners.

Implicit theories concerning roles of women and children and acceptability or tolerance of family violence in the Old and New Testament:

A. Dominant / Subordinate status

§ Basic tenet: all people are subordinate to God and that this is God's will.

§ Explicit hierarchical order of creation in Genesis implies hierarchical order in marriage and family (Ruether, 1989).

Examples of man's authority over women

Old Testament:Genesis 2:18-22

v Then the Lord said, "It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him." So the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh; and the rib which the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man.

Genesis 3:16

v To the woman he said, "I will greatly multiple your pain in childbearing; in pain, you shall bring forth children, yet your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you."

New Testament: Timothy 3:1-5

v If anyone sets his heart on being a bishop he desire a noble task…He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him with proper respect. If anyone does not know how to mange his own family, how can he take care of God's church.

Paul, Ephesians 5:22-24

v Wives submit to your husbands as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church... Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything.

Similar implicit theories of men’s right to subjugate women can be seen in excuses and justifications that men use to try to defend the use of violence against their partners.

Ptacek notes that:

" In making excuses and justifications, the deviant individual employs "socially approved vocabularies' that are routinized within cultures." (p. 141)

One type of justification- arguing that the wife verbally provoked physical violence.

Another justification- finding fault with the woman for failing to fulfill the obligations of a good wife.

HOWEVER: individuals seeking Biblical support for their practices may select from adjacent though quite divergent texts:

Paul Ephesians 5: 25-28.

v Husbands love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her to make her holy….In this same way husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. After all, no one ever hated his own body, but he feeds and cares for it, just as Christ does the church.

Dominance of adults over children

The Bible holds that children need to be educated. Until recently, this injunction was assumed to justify any disciplinary measures deemed effective.

Implicit in most Biblical passages cited on disciplining children is the notion that beating the child is necessary, since punishment is meant for the child's own good (Bar-Ilan, 1996).

Proverbs 19:18

v Discipline your son while there is still hope; do not set your heart on his destruction.

Proverbs 13:24

v He who spares the rod hates his son.

The implicit theory in these Old Testament texts appears to be that corporal punishment is necessary because it make a child a better adult and member of society.

However, note debate over the actual meaning of these Proverbs.

§ “Rod” translated from the word “Shabat” (the word for the rod used by a shepherd in a caring for sheep).

§ Ancient symbolism associated with rod: a symbol indicating guidance and the right direction.

§ “Discipline” (“yasar”) called for in
scriptures can be translated as chastisement, admonishment, or instruction.

New Testament evidence that approval of discipline not synonymous with sanctioning of child abuse:

Paul, Esphesians 6:4

v Fathers, do not exasperate your children; instead, bring them up in the training and instruction of the Lord.

Exasperate in this context means to scold too harshly or punish too severely.

Biblical references the Sinfulness and Inferiority of the Female Sex

Timothy 2: 12-14

v I do not allow women to teach or have authority over men. They must keep quiet. For Adam was created first and then Eve. And it was not Adam who was deceived. It was the woman who was deceived and broke God's law

Paul, Corinthians 4-10

v Every man who prays or prophesies with his head covered dishonors his head. And every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head….A man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image of God, but the woman is the glory of man. For man did not come from woman, but woman from man; neither was man created for woman, but woman for man. For this reason…..the woman ought to have a sign of authority on her head.

Such negative portrayals are consistent with the psychology of racial oppression and violence…..

"Civilization and high values are used to characterize the oppressor. His skin color, habits and all else that identifies him are considered superior, whereas those features of the oppressed are despised as if they personify filth and evil. Indeed the oppressed is depicted as lacking any values or ethics- he is the quintessence of evil….In short the oppressor puts himself beyond human attributes and reduces the oppressed as subhuman" (Bulman, 1985; p. 141)

Implicit theories in sociocultural context:

The story of Adam and Eve had little importance in ancient Judaic texts relative to other scriptures.

v Hellenic/Roman emphasis on role of Eve (bringing sin, despair & hardship into the world) could reflect emergence of highly patriarchal structures seeking self-justification.

v 13th –16th centuries: Women excluded from leadership/teaching positions in the church as well as marriage with leaders of the church (Ess). The “rights” afforded wives diminished during this time and acceptability of physical force against wives increased. Judaism during that time frame was still patriarchal, but Rabbinical law at the time allowed a woman to divorce her husband if he beat her.
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Implicit Theories of Abuse in Iceland
Steinunn Gestsdottir

In this presentation I will discuss some implicit theories of abuse in close relationships in Iceland. There are various factors that contribute to violence, and perceptions of violence, that are quite distinctive to Iceland; Iceland has never been at war with another nation, historically it was a very poor country which now has high living standards and a strong social system, it is a relatively safe, non-violent society to live in, and equality between men and women is greater than in many other western societies. As in most western cultures, the rights of the individual are highly valued. Overall, violence is not as pressing an issue as in many other countries, but at the same time there is very limited tolerance towards violence. In this presentation, we have chosen to focus especially on the importance of independence in the history of the nation, and how this emphasis on independence is reflected in attitudes towards family violence in Iceland. Especially, we examine how emphasis on independence, which frequently is associated with low tolerance towards abuse, can have problematic implications in connection to family violence.
First, let me give a brief overview the history of the country and the importance of independence in that history. Iceland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean and is one of the Nordic/Scandinavian countries. It is about the size of Kentucky and has a population of only 280.000. Iceland was first settled in the year 874 by Norwegian and Celtic immigrants. The first settlers were small kings who left Norway to avoid being incorporated into a larger Norwegian kingdom; they left their home country to seek independence. Althingi, the parliament, was established in 930 and has been in effect since, which makes it the oldest parliament in the world. Iceland was independent for 300 years but then came under the rule of the king of Norway and subsequently of Denmark. For a large part of the 19th and 20th centuries, political and cultural discussions in Iceland were marked by the struggle for independence, which Iceland finally achieved in 1944. Although it took considerable effort for Icelanders to regain their independence, these confrontations were peaceful and Iceland has never been at war with another nation. Today, Iceland is a very western democratic country with high living standards, a strong social system, and little violent crime.
So how is this brief historical overview connected to attitudes toward family violence? It reflects an emphasis on equality and individual rights that still persists in Iceland. In general, Icelanders see themselves as strong, proud, independent people. At the same time, they pride themselves for being a peace-loving nation that does not resort to violence. As an example, a study from 1999 compared how people in Iceland and the US perceived elder abuse. Icelanders believed elder abuse was far less of a problem in their country than Americans did, and when asked to rate specific abusive behaviors, Icelanders rated them as much more abusive than their American counterparts. Similar attitudes are reflected in the judicial system: Because violence is not seen as a major issue, the highest sentence one can received (life-sentence) is really a 16 year sentence (the death penalty is prohibited). At the same time, laws reflect the limited tolerance Icelanders have towards violence -- corporal punishment is illegal in Icelandic schools, and although child protection laws do not specifically make spanking by parents an illegal act as in some other Scandinavian countries, caretakers are prohibited by law from using any form of physical or emotional abuse against their children.
As we expected, the answers to our survey reflected the low tolerance toward violence already discussed. When asked to give examples of extreme abuse, X% of respondents mentioned physically abusive behaviors. Furthermore, physical abuse was rarely given as an example of moderate abuse, and never as a form of mild abuse. But concern with individual rights was also important in the implicit theories of Icelanders as to what constituted family violence; a good proportion of the answers reflect the belief that people have a right to dignity and independence, and hindering that right is seen as abusive. For example, one 21-year-old woman provided this general definition of abuse: “Everything that reduces [a person’s] independence and freedom”, and another young adult says: “Abuse is to not listen to the other person and not to value him or her as an equal”. Yet another respondent gives this general definition of abuse in close relationships: “[Abuse is] when one person behaves in such a way that it hurts others or prevents them from flourishing as individuals.”
The importance of independence in the minds of people in Iceland has a special meaning when in comes to children. What is frequently called “the freedom of children” refers to the importance placed on children becoming independent of others, and on being able to take care of themselves from early on. Studies have shown that Icelandic parents give their children less guidance and protection than parents in the other Scandinavian countries do. As an example, it is common for children under the age of 12 to look after younger siblings or to stay home alone, and children are left to play outside on their own or in the care of older children. But times are changing. This freedom of children is increasingly seen as a problem, and has been blamed for high accident rates among children and adolescents. In recent years, efforts have been made by authorities to reduce accident rates.
This shift in thought is reflected in the responses to our survey. When asked to define child abuse, it was obvious that neglect was on people’s minds. While not frequently mentioned as a form of extreme abuse, neglect was often specified as moderate or mild abuse. A 26-year-old defined moderate abuse towards children this way: “Not letting a child into his or her home while parents are working, but when school is over [the child] has to wait outside [for the parents to come home]”. Similarly, a male in his thirties defines mild child abuse as when “A parent leaves an 8 year old child home alone for a whole evening.” Thus, people are concerned that lack of supervision can go too far. A young woman shared this personal experience: “When I was 9 years old, I was left alone to care for my [younger] siblings, age six and one, while one parent was in the hospital and the other was on a drinking binge. I consider this an example of extreme abuse.”
Finally, the notion of independence is apparent in the answers to our survey in at least one other way. As in so many other countries, family violence is frequently seen as something that should be dealt with within the family. But we found that this does not stem from the belief that a person has a right to treat other family members badly, but rather that every person should be able to take care of herself or himself. Several answers suggest that the abused individuals should have the power to control their own life, and thus the power to stop the abuse from happening to them. After a 40-year-old male defined various forms of abuse from husband to wife, he adds: “However, none of the above [examples of abuse] should possibly take place more than once or twice, because after that the person [the victim] should have left.” Therefore, in spite of the many favorable qualities that fostering independence can bring, in the context of family violence, it can lead to an overemphasis on the role that a victim should play to resolve the abuse, and even to victim-blaming. This is what we see as one of the most serious problems when it comes to addressing family violence in Iceland; in such a small, relatively safe society, where living conditions are good, it may be that people refuse to acknowledge the problem that abuse in close relationships presents, and believe that those who do experience such abuse should have the means and opportunities to avoid being abused, regardless of whether they actually can or not.
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Implicit Theories of Abuse in Greece
Georgia Stathopoulou

National Report of Greece to the UN Commission for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1996)

Extent, seriousness, and consequences of domestic abuse are far greater than existing data indicate.

European Union survey (1999)

Greece had highest incidence of domestic violence (31% of surveyed sample were aware of at least one case of domestic abuse) of all members of EU (average=19.1%).

One in five Greek women was physically abused at least once in her lifetime from by either a husband or a partner.

It is estimated that only 1 in every 20 cases of battered women report their case to the legal system.

Real extent of the problem is even greater.

Predominant social mentality among Greeks dictates “domestic affairs should never become public.”

Attempts to address the issue:

? Autonomous Women’s Movement, 1978

§ considered violence against women as a form of social control
§ emphasized the multiple forms of abuse against women.

? General Secretariat for Equality

§ 1978 Center for Abused Women
§ Shelter for Abused Women (Athens)

2000 Campaign against domestic violence

§ Theme:“Break the silence.”

§ 6,000,000 fliers on domestic violence distributed in the mail with the electricity bills.

§ 25 big billboards in Greek highways

§ Broadcasting of messages in TV and radio stations

§ Distribution of pamphlets

Joint Conference on Domestic Abuse against Women, June, 2000

§ Most participants viewed abuse of women in the context of social gender inequality.

Center for Abused Women Data:

1990-2000: 3,000 women sought assistance

Length of abuse: 3-4 years.

In 1999, 456 abused women visited the Center:

134 (29,4%) were younger than 30 years old
142 (31%) were 30-40 years old
180 (39,5%) were older than 40 years old.
178 (39%) mothers
344 (69%) domestic violence cases
142 (31%) non-domestic violence cases

Many women visited the Center to ask for assistance for their batterers, who in most cases were unaware of the woman’s actions.

Shelter for Abused Women data, 1993-2000

200 women with 250 children sought protection.

Women’s ages: 16 to 75 years old; children’s ages 30 days to 19 years old.

Most prevalent forms of abuse: physical and psychological.

80% reported both physical and sexual abuse.

15% of the women returned eventually to their abusive husbands.

Epivatianos & Vasileiadis (1981) survey of 100 battered wives

Vast majority had undergone long term physical abuse.

Causes listed by the women:
Irritability 18 cases
Husband’s infidelity 15 cases
Alcoholism 14 cases
Mother-in-law 14 cases
Gambling 11 cases
Jealousy 10 cases
Laziness--Unemployment 8 cases
Financial disputes 2 cases
Dowry 3 cases
Wife’s infidelity 2 cases
Feelings of inferiority 3 cases

Authors’ conclusions: “the fact that in Thessaloniki, a city of almost 600,000 people, we examined only 100 cases of battered wives in one year, whereas in Wales, in an almost equal in size population, there were around 5,000 cases, shows on one hand that the Greek man, although he is considered more authoritative and repressive as a husband in comparison to other Europeans, he does not hit his wife that much and on the other hand, that the Greek woman is more accepting as wife and does not get to extremes, which would be to report her husband and even get to the point of divorce.”

Authors’ explanations for women’s unwillingness to report abusers:

not being liberated enough,
fear of the social stigma of divorce,
limited financial resources

Domestic violence against husbands a very rare phenomenon in Greece.

National Report of Greece (1996)

Data from Ministry of Justice on violence against women, 1992:

48 convicted of rape
10 people for assault
4 people for abuse.

Conclusions of General Secretariat for Equality

a) few convictions for rape
b) Courts impose more lenient sentences in crimes of violence against women than are mandated by Law.

The role of police in the underreporting of violence against women

Police practices play significant role in underreporting

? Only 0.06% of abused women go to police
(official data from the Ministry of Public Order)

? Even fewer women press charges, and those cases are not recorded at all (National Report of Greece)

Violence against Women and the Media

? Study by Sociology Department, Panteion University

From 20-25 of November, 1998 between 9 p.m. – 1 a.m.:

390 scenes of violence portrayed in media:

244 (62,6%) scenes of violence against men
146 (37,4%) scenes of violence against women

71% of the perpetrators were men

Out of the scenes of domestic violence:

83.4% portrayed violence against women

16.6% portrayed violence against men

Scenes with male victims belonged mainly to comedies

Conclusion of the study:

§ Greek cultural gender stereotypes present women as submissive and tolerant of their husbands’ abusive behavior.
§ Men are presented as strong and authoritative.

? Study conducted by the Panteion University

59.9% of reality shows portray violence against women

Women are presented as masochistic who consciously or unconsciously desire their own victimization.

Conclusion of the study:

Reality shows further victimize female victims by portraying them as responsible for their abuse.

Implicit theories of family violence in Greece:

1. Inequality of the Sexes

Examples of husband to wife abuse:

72 year old male : “severe abuse is when a husband beats his wife for no reason.”

50 year old male: “severe abuse is when a husband beats his wife. . . unless she is cheating on him. . .”

52 year old male” severe abuse is when a husband beats his wife. . . unless she is not doing what he tells her to do. . .”

Examples of wife to husband abuse:

72 year old male: “severe abuse is when the wife cheats on the husband”

45 year old male: “severe abuse is when a wife puts pressure on her husband. . . when she sends him to work. . .”

37 year old male: “severe abuse is when the wife does not take care of her husband. . . when she doesn’t cook for him. . .”

42 year old male: “severe abuse is when the wife talks back to her husband”

35 year old female: “moderate abuse is when the husband does not find cooked food when he returns home. . .”

2. Privacy of Domestic Affairs

52 year old male: “severe abuse is when a wife reports her husband to the authorities for not treating her well.’’

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Implicit Theories of Violence in India
Sonia Chawla

Background on Indian Culture
345 Collectivistic, patriarchial, and patrilinear
346 Gender roles
347 Treatment of Elderly
348 Treatment of Children
349 Caste system
350 Language
351 Religion
352 Urban vs. rural
Research on Familial Abuse in India
? Focus on child abuse started in 1988
? Abuse against women and girls is an increasingly popular area of study
? Very little to no research has been done on elder abuse or filial abuse
Indian Laws on Abuse
· Constitutional laws
· Laws on abuse against women
o Married Women’s Property Act , 1874
o Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
o Commission of Sati Prevention Act, 1987
o Laws in Penal Code
· Laws on abuse against children
o Children Act, 1960
o Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994
Survey Results
· General definitions and attitudes of abuse within the family
· Specific examples
o Relating to child abuse
o Relating to elderly abuse
o Relating to spousal abuse
· Child abuse
· Abuse of women
· Lack of focus on elderly and filial abuse
· Laws not necessarily enforced