REAGENTS
Inhibitors of Rel/NF-kB
The following tables list compounds that have been reported in the 

literature to inhibit NF-kB or activation of the pathway


  • Anti-oxidants that have been shown to inhibit activation of NF-kB
  • Proteasome and proteases inhibitors that inhibit Rel/NF-kB
  • IkBa phosphorylation and/or degradation inhibitors
  • Miscellaneous inhibitors of NF-kB


  • Table 1 Anti-oxidants that have been shown to inhibit activation of NF-kB
     
    Molecule
    Reference
    a-Lipoic acid Sen et al, 1998; Suzuki et al, 1992
    a-tocopherol Islam et al, 1998
    Aged garlic extract (allicin) Ide & Lau, 2001; Lang et al, 2004; Hasan et al, 2007
     2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)                 Yun et al, 2005
        N-acetyldopamine dimers (from P. cicadae)            Xu et al, 2006
                           Allopurinol      Gomez-Cabrera et al, 2006
                         Anetholdithiolthione    Sen et al, 1996
                              Apocynin   Barbieri et al, 2004
                              Apple juice/extracts    Shi & Jiang, 2002; Davis et al, 2006; Jung et al, 2009
                              Aretemsia p7F (5,6,3',5'-tetramethoxy 7,4'-hydroxyflavone)   Lee et al, 2004
                              Astaxanthin    Lee et al, 2003
               Autumn olive extracts; olive leaf extracts  Wang et al, 2007; Wang et al, 2008
    Avenanthramides (from oats) Guo et al, 2007; Sur et al, 2008
                              Bamboo culm extract Lee et al, 2008
                              Benidipine   Matsubara & Hazegawa, 2004
                             bis-eugenol Murakami et al, 2003
    Bruguiera gymnorrhiza compounds Homhual et al, 2006
    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) IsraŽl et al, 1992; Schulze-Osthoff et al, 1993
    Cepharanthine Okamoto et al, 1994; Tamatani et al, 2007
    Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CAPE) Natarajan et al, 1996; Nagasaka et al, 2007
                                Carnosol    Lo et al, 2002; Huang et al, 2005
                                beta-Carotene   Bai et al, 2005; Guruvayoorappan & Kuttan, 2007
                            Carvedilol Yang et al, 2003
                         Catechol Derivatives   Suzuki & Packer, 1994; Zheng et al, 2008
                   Centaurea L (Asteraceae) extracts Karamenderes et al, 2007
                   Chalcone Liu et al, 2007
                          Chlorogenic acid Feng et al, 2005
                         5-chloroacetyl-2-amnio-1,3-selenazoles Nam et al, 2008
                          Cholestin Lin et al, 2007
                          Chroman-2-carboxylic acid N-substituted phenylamides Kwak et al, 2008
    Cocoa polyphenols Lee et al, 2006
     Coffee extract (3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione)    Chung et al, 2007
                Crataegus pinnatifida polyphenols     Kao et al, 2007
                Curcumin (Diferulolylmethane); dimethoxycurcumin; EF24 analog   Singh & Aggarwal, 1995; Pae et al, 2008; Kasinski et al, 2008
        Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and     DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) Iwasaki et al, 2004; Liu et al, 2005
    Dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans Cho et al, 2002
    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) Schreck et al, 1992
    Diferoxamine Sappey et al, 1995; Schreck et al, 1992
    Dihydroisoeugenol; isoeugenol; epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methyl butyrate   Murakami et al, 1995; Park et al, 2007; Ma et al, 2008
                         Dihydrolipoic Acid   Suzuki et al, 1992, 1995
    Dilazep + fenofibric acid Sonoki et al, 2003; Yang et al, 2005
    Dimethyldithiocarbamates (DMDTC) Pyatt et al, 1998
    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) Kelly et al, 1994
    Disulfiram Schreck et al, 1992
                                Ebselen   Schreck et al, 1992
    Edaravone Kokura et al, 2005; Arii et al, 2007; Yoshida et al, 2007
    EPC-K1 (phosphodiester compound of vitamin E and vitamin C) Hirano et al, 1998
    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; green tea polyphenols) Lin & Lin, 1997; Yang et al,1998; Hou et al, 2007
                           Ergothioneine   Rahman et al, 2003
          Ethyl Pyruvate (Glutathione depletion)    Song et al, 2004; Tsung et al, 2005; Jimenez-Lopez et al, 2008
    Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic Acid (EGTA) Janssen et al, 1999
                                 Eupatilin  Lee et al, 2008
                                Exercise Goto et al, 2007
                               Fisetin Park et al, 2006; Sung et al, 2007
                 Flavonoids (Crataegus; Boerhaavia diffusa root; xanthohumol; Eupatorium arnottianum; genistein; kaempferol; quercetin, daidzein; flavone; isorhamnetin; naringenin; pelargonidin; finestin; Sophora flavescens; Seabuckthorn fruit berry) Zhang et al, 2004; Chen et al, 2004; Pandey et al, 2005; Albini et al, 2005; Colgate et al, 2006; Clavin et al, 2007; Hamalainen et al, 2008; Zheng et al, 2008; Jung et al, 2008; Mishra et al, 2008
                               Folic acid Au-Yeung et al, 2006
    Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) Manna et al, 1999
           Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides   Zhang et al, 2003; Ho et al, 2007
     Garcinol (from extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind)     Liao et al, 2004
                      Ginkgo biloba extract    Chen et al, 2003
                        Glutathione Cho et al, 1998; Schreck et al, 1992; Wang et al, 2007
                               Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol)  Murakami et al, 2007
                               Hematein       Choi et al, 2003
                             Hinokitiol     Byeon et al, 2008
                               HMCO5 herbal extract     Kim et al, 2007
                               Hydroquinone    Pyatt et al, 1998; Yang et al, 2006
                        23-hydroxyursolic acid     Shin et al, 2004
    IRFI 042 (Vitamin E-like compound) Altavilla et al, 2001
                               Iron tetrakis    Kang et al, 2001
                                Isosteviol Xu et al, 2008
                                Isovitexin   Lin et al, 2005
    Isoliquiritigenin  Kumar et al, 2007; Kim et al, 2008; Kim et al, 2008
    Kallistatin  Shen et al, 2008
    Kangen-karyu extract Satoh et al, 2005; Yokozawa et al, 2007
    L-cysteine Mihm et al, 1991
    Lacidipine Cominacini et al, 1997
                               Lazaroids   Marubayashi et al, 2002
                               Ligonberries   Wang et al, 2005
                               Lupeol Saleem et al, 2004; Lee et al, 2007
                               Lutein Kim et al, 2008
                               Magnolol Chen et al, 2002; Ou et al, 2006; Kim et al, 2007
                               Maltol Yang et al, 2006
    Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) Manna et al, 1998
    Extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. Leiro et al, 2004; Garrido et al, 2005
                               Melatonin Gilad et al, 1998; Mohan et al, 1995; Li et al, 2005
    21 (alpha, beta)-methylmelianodiol  Zhou et al, 2007
    Mulberry anthocyanins Chen et al, 2006
    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) Schreck et al, 1991
    Nacyselyn (NAL) Antonicelli et al, 2002
    Nordihydroguaiaritic acid (NDGA) Brennan & O'Neill, 1998; IsraŽl et al,1992; Schulze-Osthoff et al, 1993; Staal et al, 1993
                              Ochnaflavone Suh et al, 2006
                              Onion extract (2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyranone) Ban et al, 2007; Tang et al, 2008
    Orthophenanthroline Schreck et al, 1992
    N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl) homoserine lactone Kravchenko et al, 2008
    Paricalcitol  Tan et al, 2008
    Phenolic antioxidants (Hydroquinone and tert-butyl hydroquinone) Ma et al, 2003
    alkenylphenols from Piper obliquum Valdivia et al, 2008
    alpha-phenyl-n-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN)  Kotake et al, 1998;Lin et al, 2006
    Phenylarsine oxide (PAO, tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) Arbault et al, 1998
                     Phyllanthus urinaria   Chularojmontri et al, 2005; Shen et al, 2007
                     Phytosteryl ferulates (rice bran)      Islam et al, 2008; Jung et al, 2008
                     Piper longum Linn. extract      Singh et al, 2007
                     Pitavastatin     Tounai et al, 2007; Wang & Kitajima, 2007
                     Prodelphinidin B2 3, 3' di-O-gallate  Hou et al, 2007
                     Pterostilbene Cichocki et al, 2008; Pan et al, 2009
    Pyrrolinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) Schreck et al, 1992
    Quercetin Musonda & Chipman, 1998; Shih et al, 2004; Garcia-Mediavilla et al, 2006; Ruiz et al, 2007; Min et al, 2007; Kim et al, 2007
    Red orange extract Cimini et al, 2008
    Red wine Blanco-Colio et al, 2000; Cui & He, 2004
                       Ref-1 (redox factor 1)     Ozaki et al, 2002
                Rg(3), a ginseng derivative     Keum et al, 2003
                               Rotenone Schulze-Osthoff et al, 1993
                            Roxithromycin Ueno et al, 2005; Ou et al, 2008
                                   Rutin Kyung et al, 2008
    S-allyl-cysteine (SAC, garlic compound) Geng et al, 1997
              Salogaviolide (Centaurea ainetensis)        Ghantous et al, 2008
                              Sauchinone               Lee et al, 2003;           Hwang et al, 2003
                              Silybin            Gazak et al, 2007
                              Spironolactone             Han et al, 2006
                        Strawberry extracts              Wang et al, 2005
                              Taxifolin             Wang et al, 2005
                              Tempol         Cuzzocrea et al, 2004
    Tepoxaline (5-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxy-(4-methoxyphenyl) -N-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-propanamide) Kazmi et al, 1995; Ritchie et al, 1995
    Thio avarol derivatives Amigo et al, 2007; Amigo et al, 2008
    Thymoquinone El Gazzar et al, 2007;l Sethi et al, 2008
    Tocotrienol (palm oil) Wu et al, 2008
    Tomato peel polysaccharide De Stefano et al, 2007
    UDN glycoprotein (Ulmus davidiana Nakai) Lee & Lim, 2007
    Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry) extract Wang et al, 2007
    Vanillin (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) Murakami et al, 2007
    Vitamin C Staal et al, 1993; Son et al, 2004
                               Vitamin B6           Yanaka et al, 2005
    Vitamin E and derivatives Suzuki & Packer, 1993; Ekstrand-Hammarstrom et al, 2007; Glauert, 2007
    a-torphryl succinate Staal et al, 1993; Suzuki & Packer, 1993
    a-torphryl acetate Suzuki & Packer, 1993
    PMC (2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-hydroxychromane) Suzuki & Packer, 1993
    Yakuchinone A and B Chun et al, 2002


     

    Table 2a Proteasome and proteases inhibitors that inhibit Rel/NF-kB
    Molecule References
    Proteasome inhibitors
                             Peptide Aldehydes: Palombella et al, 1994; Grisham et al, 1999; Jobin et al, 1998
    ALLnL
    (N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucynil-norleucynal, MG101)
          LLM (N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucynil-methional)
          Z-LLnV 
          (carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucynil-norvalinal,MG115)
          Z-LLL 
          (carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucynil-leucynal, MG132)
    Lactacystine, beta-lactone Fenteany & Schreiber, 1998; Grisham et al, 1999
    Boronic Acid Peptide Grisham et al, 1999; Iqbal et al, 1995
    Dithiocarbamate complexes with metals Cvek & Dvorak, 2007
    CEP-18770 Piva et al, 2007
    Ubiquitin Ligase Inhibitors Yaron et al, 1997
    PS-341 (Bortezomib) Adams, 2004
    Salinosporamide A (1, NPI-0052)  Macherla et al, 2005; Ahn et al, 2007
    Cyclosporin A Frantz et al, 1994; Kunz et al, 1995; Marienfeld et al, 1997; McCaffrey et al, 1994; Meyer et al, 1997; Wechsler et al, 1994
    FK506 (Tacrolimus) Okamoto et al, 1994; Venkataraman et al, 1995
    Deoxyspergualin Tepper et al, 1995
                              Disulfiram            Lovborg et al, 2005
                              PT-110          Momose et al, 2007
     

    Protease inhibitors

    APNE (N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine-b-naphthylester) Higuchi et al, 1995
    BTEE (N-benzoyl L-tyrosine-ethylester) Rossi et al, 1998
    DCIC (3,4-dichloroisocoumarin) D'Acquisto et al, 1998
    DFP (diisopropyl fluorophosphate)
    TPCK (N-a-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone)
    TLCK (N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone)


     

    Table 2b IkBa phosphorylation and/or degradation inhibitors
    Molecule
    Point of Inhibition
    References
    Desloratadine; diphenhydramine Histamine H1 receptor Wu et al, 2004; Scadding, 2005; Roumestan et al, 2008
    Bikunin LPS receptor agonists Kobayashi, 2006; Kanayama et al, 2007
    Ron Tyrosine kinase receptor Suppresses TNF production Lentsch et al, 2007
    TAK-242 TLR4 intracellular domain Kawamoto et al, 2008
    Salmeterol, fluticasone propionate beta2 agonists Baouz et al, 2005
    CPU0213 Endothelin receptor antagonist He et al, 2006
    Doxazosin alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Hui et al, 2007
    Erbin overexpression NOD2 inhibitor McDonald et al, 2005
    Protein-bound polysaccharide from basidiomycetes LPS-CD14 interaction Asai et al, 2005
    Anti-CD146 antibody AA98 upstream of IKK Bu et al, 2006
    Calagualine (fern derivative) upstream of IKK (TRAF2-NIK) Manna et al, 2003
    NS3/4A (HCV protease) upstream of IKK  Karayiannis, 2005
    golli BG21 (product of myelin basic protein) upstream of IKK (PKC) Feng et al, 2004
    NPM-ALK oncoprotein Traf2 inhibition Horie et al, 2004
    NS5A (Hepatitis C virus) Traf2 inhibition Park et al, 2002
    LY29 and LY30 PI3 Kinase inhibitors Choi et al, 2004
    Shiga toxin (Enterohemorrhagic E coli) PI3 Kinase inhibitor Gobert et al, 2007
    Evodiamine (Evodiae Fructus component) AKT-IKK interaction Takada et al, 2005
    Rituximab (anti-CD20 antibody) up-regulates Raf-1 kinase inhibitor Jazirehi et al, 2005
    Kinase suppressor of ras (KSR2) MEKK3 inhibitor Channavajhala et al, 2005
    Cholecystokinin ocatpeptide (CCK-8) p38 kinase Li et al, 2007
    M2L (Vaccinia virus) ERK2 inhibitor Gedey et al, 2006; Hinthong et al, 2008
    Pefabloc (serine protease inhibitor) upstream of IKK Tando et al, 2002
    Rocaglamides (Aglaia derivatives) upstream of IKK Baumann et al, 2002
    Ymer Binds to Ub-RIP Bohgaki et al, 2007
    Epoxyquinol B TAK1 crosslinker Kamiyama et al, 2008
    Betaine NIK/IKK Go et al, 2004, 2007
    TNAP NIK Hu et al, 2005
    Selected peptides NEMO binding to Ub Wyler et al, 2007
    Desflurane IKK complex formation with TNF-R1 Li et al, 2008
    Geldanamycin IKK complex formation Chen et al, 2002
    Grape seed proanthocyanidins  IKKa activity Mantena & Katiyar, 2006; Sharma et al, 2007; Cheng et al, 2007; Xu et al, 2008
    Laretia acaulis azorellane diterpenoids IKKa activity Borquez et al, 2007
     MC160 (Molluscum contagiosum virus) IKKa activity Nichols & Shisler , 2006
    NS5B (Hepatitis C protein) IKKa activity Choi et al, 2006
    Pomegranate fruit extract  IKKa activity Afaq et al, 2004; Khan et al, 2006
    Tetrandine (plant alkaloid)  IKKa activity Ho et al, 2004; Xue et al, 2008; Lin et al, 2008
    BMS-345541 (4(2'-Aminoethyl)amino-1,8-dimethylimidazo(1,2-a)

    quinoxaline) and 4-amino derivatives

    IKKa and IKKb kinase activity Burke et al, 2002; Yang et al, 2006; Beaulieu et al, 2006
    1-O-acetylbritannilactone IKKb activity Liu et al, 2007
    2-amino-3-cyano-4-aryl-6-(2-hydroxy-phenyl)pyridine derivatives IKKb activity Murata et al, 2003, 2004, 2004
    Acrolein IKKb activity/p50 DNA binding Vallacchi et al, 2005; Lambert et al, 2007
    Anandamide IKKb activity Sancho et al, 2003
    AS602868 IKKb activity Frelin et al, 2003: Griessinger et al, 2007
    Cobrotoxin IKKb activity and p50 DNA binding Park et al, 2005
    Core protein (Hepatitis C) IKKb activity  Joo et al, 2005; Shrivastava et al, 1998
    1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]

    imidazole

    IKKb activity  Yore et al, 2006
    Dihydroxyphenylethanol IKKb activity Guichard et al, 2006
    Herbimycin A IKKb activity Iwasaki et al, 1992; Mahon & OíNeill, 1995; Ogino et al, 2004
    Inhibitor 22 IKKb activity Baxter et al, 2004
    Isorhapontigenin IKKb activity Li et al, 2005
    Manumycin A IKKb activity Bernier et al, 2005; Frassanito et al, 2005
    6-methyl-2-propolyimino-6,7-dihydro-5H-

    benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one

    IKKb  Kim et al, 2008
    MLB120 (small molecule) IKKb activity Nagashima et al, 2006
    Naphthopyrones (6-methoxycomaparvin and 6-methooxycomaparvin 5-methyl ether) IKKb activity Fulmer et al, 2008
    Novel Inhibitor IKKb activity Kamon et al, 2004
    vIRF3 (KSHV) IKKb activity Seo et al, 2004
    Nitric oxide IKKb activity/IkB phosphorylation Katsuyama et al, 1998; Matthews et al, 1996; Spieker & Liao, 1999; Reynaert et al, 2004
    SC-514 (small molecule) IKKb activity Kishore et al, 2003
    Thienopyridine IKKb activity Morwick et al, 2006
    Acetyl-boswellic acids IKK activity Syrovets et al, 2004, 2005
    Amino-pyrimidine derivative IKK activity Karin et al, 2004
    Benzoimidazole derivative IKK activity Karin et al, 2004
    BMS-345541 IKK activity Burke et al, 2003
    Butein  IKKb activity Pandey et al, 2007
    Beta-carboline IKK activity Yoon et al, 2005
    CYL-19s and CYL-26z, two synthetic alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone derivatives IKK activity Huang et al, 2004
    ACHP (2-amino-6-[2-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-6-

    hydroxyphenyl]-4-piperidin-4-yl nicotinonitrile

    IKKb activity (ATP analog) Sanda et al, 2006
    Berberine IKKb activity Hu et al, 2007; Yi et al, 2008; Pandey et al, 2008
    Compound A IKKb activity (ATP analog) Ziegelbauer et al, 2005
    Flavopiridol IKK activity and RelA phosphor. Takada & Aggarwal, 2003
    Cyclopentones IKKb activity Bickley et al, 2004
    Dehydroascorbic acid (Vitamin C) IKKb activity Carcamo et al, 2004
    Gossypyin or Gossypium extracts IKKb activity Kunnumakkara et al, 2007; Ji et al, 2008
    M protein (SARS-Cornonavirus protein) IKKb activity Fang et al, 2007
    IMD-0354  IKKb activity Tanaka et al, 2004, 2006; Inayama et al, 2006
    Jesterone dimer IKKb activity; DNA binding Liang et al, 2003, 2006
    KINK-1 IKKb activity Schon et al, 2008
    LCY-2-CHO IKKb activity Ho et al, 2007
    Prolyl hydroxylase-1 IKKb activity Cummins et al, 2006
    Naphthopyrones (Echinoderm Comanthus parvicirrus) IKKb activity Folmer et al, 2007
    Neuropeptides CGRP, PACAP and VIP IKKb activity Ding et al, 2007
    PS-1145 (MLN1145) IKKb activity Hideshima et al, 2002
    2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-

    thiophenecarboxamides (TPCA-1)

    IKKb activity Bonafoux et al, 2005; Podolin et al, 2005
    1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (Languas galanga) IKK activity Ichikawa et al, 2005; Ito et al, 2005
    17-Acetoxyjolkinolide B IKK activity Yan et al, 2008
    Acute alcohol exposure IKK activity Mandrekar et al, 2007
    Anacardic acid (6-nonadecyl-salicylic acid) IKK activity Sung et al, 2008
    Apigenin (plant flavinoid) IKK activity Shukla & Gupta, 2004; Yoon et al, 2006
    Asiatic acid IKK activity Yun et al, 2008
    Cardamomin IKK activity Lee et al, 2005
    CDDO-Me (synthetic triterpenoid) IKK activity Shishodia et al, 2006
    CHS 828 (anticancer drug) IKK activity Olsen et al, 2004
    CML-1 IKK activity Mo et al, 2006
    Compound 5 (Uredio-thiophenecarboxamide derivative) IKK activity Roshak et al, 2002
    CT20126  IKK activity/NIK Lee et al, 2008
    Diaylpyridine derivative  IKK activity Murata et al, 2003
    3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (from Chaga)  IKK activity Sung et al, 2008
    Diosgenin IKK activity Shishodia & Aggarwal, 2005; Liagre et al, 2005 
    E3-14.7K (Adenovirus) IKK activity  Li et al, 1999
    E3-10.4K/14.5K (Adenovirus) IKK activity Friedman & Horwitz, 2002
    E7 (human papillomavirus) IKK activity Spitkovsky et al, 2002
    Furonaphthoquinone IKK activity Shin et al, 2006
    Guggulsterone IKK activity Ichikawa & Aggarwal, 2006; Deng, 2007; Lv et al, 2008; Lee et al, 2008
    HB-EGF (Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor) IKK activity Mehta & Besner, 2003
    Falcarindol IKK activity Shiao et al, 2005
    Hammerhead ribozyme to IKKa/b IKK activity Yang et al, 2007
    Hepatocyte growth factor IKK activity Min et al, 2005; Gong et al, 2006
    Honokiol IKK activity Tse et al, 2005; Munroe et al, 2007
    Humulone IKK activity Lee et al, 2007
    Hypoestoxide IKK activity Ojo-Amaize et al, 2001
    Indolecarboxamide derivative IKK activity Karin et al, 2004
    Labdane diterpenoids IKK activity Giron et al, 2008
    LF15-0195 (analog of 15-deoxyspergualine) IKK activity Yang et al, 2003
    gamma-mangostin (from Garcinia mangostana) IKK activity Nakatani et al, 2004
    Garcinone B IKK activity Yamakuni et al, 2005
    (Amino)imidazolylcarboxaldehyde derivative IKK activity Karin et al, 2004
    Imidazolylquinoline-carboxaldehyde derivative IKK activity Karin et al, 2004
    Kahweol IKK activity Kim et al, 2004
    Kava (Piper methysticum) derivatives IKK activity Folmer et al, 2006
    Lead IKK activity Xu et al, 2006
    Marasmius oreades liquid extract IKK activity Petrova et al, 2008
    Menatetrenone (vitamin K2 analogue) IKK activity Ozaki et al, 2007
    Metformin IKK activity Huang et al, 2008
    Mild hypothermia IKK activity Han et al, 2003
    ML120B IKK activity Catley et al, 2006
    Morin (3,5,7,2',4'-Pentahydroxyflavone) IKK activity Manna et al, 2007
    Morusin IKK activity Lee et al, 2008
    MX781 (retinoid antagonist) IKK activity Bayon et al, 2003
    N-acetylcysteine IKK activity Oka et al, 2000
    Nitrosylcobalamin (vitamin B12 analog) IKK activity Chawla-Sarkar et al, 2003
    NSAIDs IKK activity Takada et al, 2004
    Hepatits C virus NS5B IKK activity Choi et al, 2006
    PAN1 (aka NALP2 or PYPAF2) IKK activity Bruey et al, 2004
    Pectin (citrus) IKK activity Chen et al, 2006
    Pinitol IKK activity Sethi et al, 2008
    PMX464 IKK activity Callister et al, 2008
    Pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinoline derivative IKK activity Karin et al, 2004
    Pyridooxazinone derivative IKK activity Karin et al, 2004
    N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide IKK activity Shishodia et al, 2005; Kuefer et al, 2007
    Scytonemin IKK activity Stevenson et al, 2002
    Semecarpus anacardiu extract IKK activity Singh et al, 2006
    SPC-839 IKK activity Palanki et al, 2002
    Sulforaphane and phenylisothiocyanate IKK activity Xu et al, 2005; Murakami et al, 2007; Liu et al, 2008: Hayes et al, 2008
    Survanta (Surfactant product) IKK activity Raychaudhuri et al, 2003
    Torque Teno virus ORF2 IKK activity Zheng et al, 2007
    Piceatannol  IKK activity Islam et al, 2004
    Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone)  IKK activity Sandur et al, 2006
    IKKb peptide to NEMO binding domain   IKK-NEMO interaction May et al, 2000
    NEMO CC2-LZ peptide  NEMO oligomerization Agou et al, 2004
    AGRO100 (G-quadraplex oligodeoxynucleotide)  NEMO binding Girvan et al, 2006
    PTEN (tumor suppressor) Activation of IKK Gustin et al, 2001
    Theaflavin (black tea component) Activation of IKK Aneja et al, 2004; Ukil et al, 2006; Kalra et al, 2007
    Tilianin Activation of IKK Nam et al, 2005
    Withanolides  Activation of IKK Ichikawa et al, 2006
    Zerumbone Activation of IKK Takada et al, 2005
    Silibinin IKKa activity; nuclear translocation Dhanalakshmi et al, 2002; Singh et al, 2004; Min et al, 2007
    Sulfasalazine IKKa and IKKb kinase activity Wahl et al, 1998: Weber et al, 2000
    Sulfasalazine analogs IKK kinase activity Habens et al, 2005
    Quercetin IKK activity Peet & Li, 1999
    Rosmarinic acid IKK activity Lee et al, 2006
    Staurosporine IKK activity Peet & Li, 1999
    gamma-Tocotrienol IKK activity Shah & Sylvester, 2005; Ahn et al, 2006
    Wedelolactone IKK activity Kobori et al, 2003
    Betulinic acid IKKa activity and p65 phosphorylation Takada & Aggarwal, 2003; Rabi et al, 2008
    Ursolic acid IKKa activity and p65 phosphorylation Shishodia et al, 2003; Manu & Kuttan, 2008
    Thalidomide (and thalidomide analogs) IKK activity Keifer et al, 2001; Ge et al, 2006; Carcache de-Blanco et al, 2007
    Fas-associated factor-1 IKK assembly Park et al, 2007
    Interleukin-10 Reduced IKKa and IKKb expression Tabary et al, 2003
    MC160 (molluscum contagiosum virus) Reduced IKKa expression Nichols & Shisler, 2006
    Monochloramine and glycine chloramine (NH2Cl)      Oxidizes IkB Kim et al, 2005; Midwinter et al, 2006  
    GS143  Blocks IkB ubiquitylation Nakajima et al, 2008; Hirose et al, 2008
    Salmonella Secreted Factor L  Blocks IkB ubiquitylation Le Negrate et al, 2008
    Anethole  Phosphorylation Chainy et al, 2000
    Anti-thrombin III  Phosphorylation Oelschlager et al, 2002
    Artemisia vestita  Phosphorylation Sun et al, 2006
    Aspirin, sodium salicylate Phosphorylation, IKKbeta Frantz & O'Neill, 1995; Kopp & Ghosh, 1994; Yin et al, 1998
    Azidothymidine (AZT) Phosphorylation Ghosh et al, 2003; Kurokawa et al, 2005
    Baoganning Phosphorylation Tan et al, 2005
    BAY-11-7082 

    (E3((4-methylphenyl)-sulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile)

    Phosphorylation Pierce et al, 1997
    BAY-117083 

    (E3((4-t-butylphenyl)-sulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile)

    Phosphorylation Pierce et al, 1997
    Benzyl isothiocyanate Phosphorylation Srivastava & Singh, 2004
    Black raspberry extracts (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-(2(G)-xylosylrutinoside), cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) Phosphorylation Huang et al, 2002; Hecht et al, 2006
    Buddlejasaponin IV Phosphorylation Won et al, 2006
    Cacospongionolide B Phosphorylation Posadas et al, 2003
    Calagualine Phosphorylation Manna et al, 2003
    Carbon monoxide Phosphorylation Sarady et al, 2002
    Carboplatin Phosphorylation Singh & Bhat, 2004
    Cardamonin Phosphorylation Israf et al, 2006
    Chorionic gonadotropin Phosphorylation Manna et al, 2000
    Cordycepin Phosphorylation Kim et al, 2006; Huang et al., 2007
    Crassocephalum rabens galactolipid Phosphorylation Hou et al., 2007
    Cycloepoxydon; 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-3-pent-1-enylbenzene Phosphorylation Gehrt et al, 1998
    Cytomegalovirus Phosphorylation Jarvis et al, 2006
    Decursin Phosphorylation Kim et al, 2006
    Delphinidin Phosphorylation Syed et al, 2008
    Dexanabinol Phosphorylation Juttler et al, 2004
    Digitoxin Phosphorylation Srivastava et al, 2004; Jagielska et al, 2009
    Diterpenes (synthetic) Phosphorylation Chao et al, 2005
    Docosahexaenoic acid Phosphorylation Chen et al, 2005; Zand et al, 2008
    Entamoeba histolytica Phosphorylation Kammanadiminti & Chadee, 2006
    Extensively oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) Phosphorylation Brand et al, 1997; Page et al, 1999
    FBD Phosphorylation Lin et al, 2008
    FHIT (Fragile histidine triad protein) Phosphorylation Nakagawa & Akao, 2006
    Fructus Ligustrum lucidi Phosphorylation An et al, 2007
    Gabexate mesilate Phosphorylation Uchiba et al, 2003
    [6]-gingerol; casparol Phosphorylation Kim et al, 2005; Aktan et al, 2006; Ishiguro et al, 2007
    Gleditsia sinensis thorns extract Phosphorylation Ha et al, 2008
    Gleevec (Imatanib) Phosphorylation Wolf et al, 2005
    Glossogyne tenuifolia Phosphorylation Wu et al, 2004; Ha et al, 2006
    Guggulsterone Phosphorylation Shishodia & Aggarwal, 2004
    4-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone Phosphorylation Lai et al, 2007
    Hydroquinone Phosphorylation Kerzic et al, 2003
    Ibuprofen Phosphorylation Palayoor et al, 1998
    Indirubin-3'-oxime Phosphorylation Mak et al, 2004
    Inonotus obliquus ethanol extract Phosphorylation Kim et al, 2007
    Interferon-alpha Phosphorylation Manna et al, 2000
    Inhaled isobutyl nitrite Phosphorylation Ponnappan et al, 2004
    Kaempferol Phosphorylation Garcia-Mediavilla et al, 2006; Kim et al, 2007
    Kushen flavonoids and kurarinone Phosphorylation Han et al, 2006
    Licorce extracts Phosphorylation Kim  et al, 2006: Kwon et al, 2007
    Melatonin Phosphorylation Alonso et al, 2006; Tamura et al, 2009
    Marine natural products (several) IKKb/proteasome Folmer et al, 2009
    Methotrexate Phosphorylation Majumdar & Aggarwal, 2001; Yozai et al, 2005
    Monochloramine Phosphorylation Omori et al, 2002
    Nafamostat mesilate Phosphorylation Noguchi et al, 2003
    Obovatol Phosphorylation Lee et al, 2008
    Oleandrin Phosphorylation Manna et al, 2000; Sreeivasan et al, 2003
    Oleanolic acid (Aralia elata) Phosphorylation Suh et al, 2007
    Omega 3 fatty acids Phosphorylation Novak et al, 2003
    Panduratin A (from Kaempferia pandurata, Zingiberaceae) Phosphorylation Yun et al, 2003
    Petrosaspongiolide M Phosphorylation Posadas et al, 2003
    Pinosylvin Phosphorylation Lee et al, 2006
    Plagius flosculosus extract polyacetylene spiroketal Phosphorylation Calzado et al, 2005
    Phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) Phosphorylation Ferry et al, 2002
    Pomegranate fruit extract Phosphorylation Ahmed et al, 2005
    Prostaglandin A1 Phosphorylation/IKK Rossi et al, 1997, 2000
    20(S)-Protopanaxatriol (ginsenoside metabolite) Phosphorylation Oh et al, 2004; Lee et al, 2005
    Rengyolone Phosphorylation Kim et al, 2006
    Rottlerin Phosphorylation Kim et al, 2005; Torricelli et al, 2008
    Saikosaponin-d Phosphorylation; Increased IkB Leung et al, 2005; Dang et al, 2007
    Saline (low Na+ istonic) Phosphorylation Tabary et al, 2003
    Salvia miltiorrhizae water-soluble extract Phosphorylation Kim et al, 2005
    Sanguinarine (pseudochelerythrine, 13-methyl-[1,3]-benzodioxolo-[5,6-c]-1,3-dioxolo-4,5 phenanthridinium) Phosphorylation Chaturvedi et al, 1997
    Scoparone Phosphorylation Jang et al, 2005
    Sesaminol glucosides Phosphorylation Lee et al, 2006
    Shikonins Phosphorylation Nam et al, 2008
    Silymarin Phosphorylation Manna et al, 1999; Saliou et al, 1998
    Snake venom toxin (Vipera lebetina turanica) Phosphorylation Son et al, 2007
    SOCS1 Phosphorylation Kinjyo et al, 2002; Nakagawa et al, 2002
    Spilanthol Phosphorylation Wu et al, 2008
    Statins (several) Phosphorylation Hilgendorff et al, 2003; Han et al, 2004; Planavila et al, 2005
    Sulindac IKK/Phosphorylation Yamamato et al, 1999
    THI 52 (1-naphthylethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-

    tetrahydroisoquinoline)

    Phosphorylation Kang et al, 2003
    1,2,4-thiadiazolidine derivatives Phosphorylation Manna et al, 2004
    Tomatidine Phosphorylation Chiu & Lin, 2008
    Vesnarinone Phosphorylation Manna & Aggarwal, 2000; Harada et al, 2005
    Xanthoangelol D Phosphorylation Sugii et al, 2005
    YC-1 Phosphorylation Huang et al, 2005
    YopJ (encoded by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) Deubiquintinase for IkBa; Acetylation of IKKbeta Schesser et al, 1998; Zhou et al, 2005; Mittal et al, 2006; Mukherjee & Orth, 2008
    Osmotic stress IkB ubiquitination Huangfu et al, 2007
    Acetaminophen Degradation Mancini et al, 2003
    Activated Protein C (APC) Degradation Yuksel et al, 2002
    Alachlor Degradation Shimomura-Shimizu et al, 2005
    Allylpyrocatechol Degradation Sarkar et al, 2008
    a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH) Degradation Manna & Aggarwal, 1998
    Amentoflavone Degradation Banerjee et al, 2002; Guruvayoorappan & Kuttan, 2007
    Angelica dahurica radix extract Degradation Kang et al, 2006
    Apple extracts Degradation/proteasome Yoon & Liu, 2007
    Artemisia capillaris Thunb extract (capillarisin) Degradation Hong et al, 2004; Kim et al, 2007; Lee et al, 2007
    Artemisia iwayomogi extract Degradation Kim et al, 2005
    L-ascorbic acid Degradation Han et al, 2004
    Antrodia camphorata Degradation Hseu et al, 2005
    Aucubin Degradation Jeong et al, 2002
    Baicalein Degradation Ma et al, 2004
    N-(quinolin-8-yl)benzenesulfonamindes Degradation Xie et al, 2007
    beta-lapachone Degradation Manna et al, 1999
    Blackberry extract Degradation Pergola et al, 2006
    1-Bromopropane Degradation Yoshida et al, 2006
    Buchang-tang Degradation Shin et al, 2005
    Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) Degradation Singh et al, 1996; Mori et al, 2006; Kang et al, 2007
    Catalposide Degradation Kim et al, 2004
    Clerodendron trichotomum Tunberg Leaves Degradation Park & Kim, 2007
    Clomipramine/imipramine Degradation Hwang et al, 2008
    Coptidis rhizoma extract Degradation Kim et al, 2007
    Cyclolinteinone (sponge sesterterpene) Degradation D'Acquisto et al, 2000
    DA-9601 (Artemisia asiatica extract) Degradation Choi et al, 2006
    Diamide (tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) Degradation Toledano & Leonard, 1991; Singh & Aggarwal, 1995
    Dihydroarteanniun Degradation Li et al, 2006
    Dobutamine Degradation Loop et al, 2004
    Docosahexaenoic acid Degradation Weldon et al, 2006
    E-73 (cycloheximide analog) Degradation Sugimoto et al, 2000
    Ecabet sodium Degradation Kim et al, 2003
    Electrical stimulation of vagus nerve Degradation Guarini et al, 2003
    Emodin (3-methyl-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone) Degradation Kumar et al, 1998; Huang et al, 2004
    Ephedrae herba (Mao) Degradation Aoki et al, 2005
    Equol Degradation Kang et al, 2005
    Erbstatin (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) Degradation Natarajan et al, 1998
    Estrogen (E2) Degradation/and various other steps Sun et al, 1998; Kalaitzidis & Gilmore, 2005; Steffan et al, 2006
    Ethacrynic acid Degradation (and DNA binding) Han et al, 2004
    Fludarabine Degradation Nishioka et al, 2007
    Fosfomycin Degradation Yoneshima et al, 2003
    Fungal gliotoxin Degradation Pahl et al, 1999
    Gabexate mesilate Degradation Yuksel et al, 2003
    Gamisanghyulyunbueum Degradation Shin et al, 2005
    Genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) Degradation; caspase cleavage of IkBa Natarajan et al, 1998; Baxa & Yoshimura, 2003
    Genipin Degradation Koo et al, 2004
    Glabridin Degradation Kang et al, 2004
    Ginsenoside Re Degradation Zhang et al, 2007
    Glimepiride Degradation Schiekofer et al, 2003
    Glucosamine (sulfate or carboxybutyrylated) Degradation Largo et al, 2003; Rafi et al, 2007; Rajapakse et al, 2008
    gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase Degradation Manna et al, 1999
    Glutamine Degradation Singleton et al, 2005; Fillmann et al, 2007; Chen et al, 2008
    Glycochenodeoxycholate  Degradation Bucher et al, 2006
    Guave leaf extract Degradation Choi et al, 2008
    Gumiganghwaltang Degradation Kim et al, 2005
    Gum mastic Degradation He et al, 2007
    Heat shock protein-70 Degradation Chan et al, 2004; Shi et al, 2006
    Herbal mixture (Cinnamomi ramulus, Anemarrheriae rhizoma, Officinari rhizoma) Degradation Jeong et al, 2008
    Hypochlorite Degradation Mohri et al, 2002
    IL-13 Degradation Manna & Aggarwal, 1998
    Incensole acetate Degradation Moussaieff et al, 2007
    Intravenous immunoglobulin Degradation Ichiyama et al, 2004
    Isomallotochromanol and isomallotochromene Degradation Ishii et al, 2003
    K1L (Vaccinia virus protein) Degradation Shisler & Jin, 2004
    Kochia scoparia fruit (methanol extract) Degradation Shin et al, 2004
    Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl (ethanol extract) Degradation Tao et al, 2008
    Leflunomide metabolite (A77 1726) Degradation Manna & Aggarwal, 1999
    Lidocaine Degradation Feng et al, 2007; Lahat et al, 2008
    Lipoxin A4 Degradation Zhang et al, 2007
    Losartan Degradation/NF-kB expression Chen et al, 2002; Zhu et al, 2007
    Low level laser therapy Degradation Rizzi et al, 2006
    LY294002 (PI3-kinase inhibitor)  [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenylchromone] Degradation Park et al, 2002
    MC159 (Molluscum contagiosum virus) Degradation of IkBb Murao & Shisler, 2005
    Melatonin Degradation Zhang et al, 2004
    Meloxicam Degradation Liu et al, 2007
    5'-methylthioadenosine Degradation Hevia et al, 2004
    Midazolam Degradation Kim et al, 2006
    Momordin I Degradation Hwang et al, 2005
    Morinda officinalis extract Degradation Kim et al, 2005
    Mosla dianthera extract Degradation Lee et al, 2006
    Mume fructus extract Degradation Choi et al, 2007
    Murr1 gene product Degradation Ganesh et al, 2003
    Neurofibromatosis-2 (NF-2; merlin) protein Degradation Kim et al, 2002
    Opuntia ficus indica va saboten extract Degradation   Lee et al, 2006
    Ozone (aqueous) Degradation Huth et al, 2007
    Paeony total glucosides Degradation Chen et al, 2007
    Pectenotoxin-2 Degradation Kim et al, 2008
    Penetratin Degradation Letoya et al, 2006
    Pervanadate (tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) Degradation Singh & Aggarwal, 1995; Singh et al, 1996
    Phenylarsine oxide (PAO, tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) Degradation Mahboubi et al, 1998; Singh & Aggarwal, 1995
    beta-Phenylethyl (PEITC) and 8-methylsulphinyloctyl isothiocyanates (MSO) (watercress) Degradation Rose et al, 2005
    Phenytoin Degradation Kato et al, 2005
    c-phycocyanin Degradation Cherng et al, 2007
    Platycodin saponins Degradation Ahn et al, 2005; Lee et al, 2008
    Polymeric formula Degradation de Jong et al, 2007
    Polymyxin B Degradation Jiang et al, 2006
    Poncirus trifoliata fruit extract Degradation; phosphorylation of IkBa Shin et al, 2006; Kim et al, 2007
    Probiotics Degradation Petrof et al, 2004
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) Degradation Delgado & Ganea, 2001
    Prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) Degradation Cuzzocrea et al, 2003; Chatterjee et al, 2004
    Prodigiosin (Hahella chejuensis) Degradation Huh et al, 2007
    PS-341 Degradation/proteasome Hideshima et al, 2002
    Radix asari extract Degradation Song et al, 2007
    Radix clematidis extract Degradation Lee et al, 2009
    Resiniferatoxin Degradation Singh et al, 1996
    Sabaeksan Degradation Choi et al, 2005
    SAIF (Saccharomyces boulardii anti-inflammatory factor) Degradation Sougioultzis et al, 2006
    Sanguis Draconis Degradation Choy et al, 2007
    San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang Degradation Shih et al, 2007
    Schisandra fructus extract Degradation Kang et al, 2006; Guo et al, 2008
    Scutellarin Degradation Tan et al, 2007
    Sesquiterpene lactones (parthenolide; ergolide; guaianolides; alpha-humulene; trans-caryophyllene) Degradation Hehner et al, 1998; Whan Han et al, 2001; Schorr et al, 2002; Medeiros et al, 2007
    Sevoflurane/isoflurane Degradation Boost et al, 2009
    Siegeskaurolic acid (from Siegesbeckia pubescens root) Degradation Park et al, 2007
    ST2 (IL-1-like receptor secreted form) Degradation Takezako et al, 2006
    Synadenium carinatum latex lectin Degradation Rogerio et al, 2007
    Taiwanofungus camphoratus Degradation Liu et al, 2007
    Taurene bromamine Degradation Tokunaga et al, 2007
    Thiopental Degradation Loop et al, 2002
    Tipifarnib Degradation Xue et al, 2005
    Titanium Degradation Yang et al, 2003
    TNP-470 (angiogenesis inhibitor) Degradation Mauriz et al, 2003
    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) plant extracts Degradation Riehemann et al, 1999
    Trichomomas vaginalis infection Degradation Chang et al, 2004
    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins Degradation Kumwenda et al, 2002
    Tussilagone (Farfarae fios) Degradation Lim et al, 2008
    U0126 (MEK inhibitor) Degradation  Takaya et al, 2003
    Ursodeoxycholic acid Degradation Joo et al, 2004
    Xanthium strumarium L. (methanol extract) Degradation Kim et al, 2005; Yoon et al, 2008
    Yulda-Hanso-Tang Degradation Jeong et al, 2007
    Zinc Degradation Uzzo et al, 2006; Bao et al, 2006
    Molluscum contagiosum virus MC159 protein IkBbeta degradation Murao & Shisler, 2005
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide Degradation (and CBP-RelA interaction) Delgado & Ganea, 2001; Delgado, 2002
    HIV-1 Vpu protein TrCP ubiquitin ligase inhibitor Bour et al, 2001
    Epoxyquinone A monomer IKKb/DNA binding Liang et al, 2006
    Ro106-9920 (small molecule) IkBa ubiqutination inhibitor Swinney et al, 2002


     

    Table 3 Miscellaneous inhibitors of NF-kB
     
    Inhibitor Molecule
    Effect or point of inhibition
    References
    Conophylline (Ervatamia microphylla) Down regulated TNF-Receptors Gohda et al, 2003
    MOL 294 (small molecule) Redox regulated activation of NF-kB Henderson et al, 2002
           PEDF (pigment epithelium derived factor) ROS generation  Yamagishi et al, 2004
           Perrilyl alcohol Calcium pathway Berchtold et al, 2005
    MAST205 TRAF6 binding  Xiong et al, 2004
    Rhein MEKK activation of NF-kB  Martin et al, 2003' Domagala et al, 2006
    15-deoxy-prostaglandin J(2) PPARg activation of NF-kB  Boyault et al, 2004
    Palmitoylethanolamide  PPARg activation of NF-kB  Genovese et al, 2008
    Antrodia camphorata extract IkBa upregulation  Hsu et al, 2005
    apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) IkBa upregulation  Shukla & Gupta, 2004
    Aresenic trioxide IkBa upregulation  Zhou et al, 2006
    beta-amyloid protein IkBa upregulation  Bales et al, 1998
    Huang-lian-jie-du-tang IkBa upregulation  Hsu et al,2008
    human breast milk IkBa upregulation  Minekawa et al, 2004
    Fruit Essential oil  (from Cinnamomum insularimontanum) IkBa upregulation; IKK and NF-kB downregulation Lin et al, 2008
    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) IkBa upregulation  Wu et al, 2004
    DQ 65-79 (aa 65-79 of the alpha helix of the alpha-chain of the class II HLA molecule DQA03011)      IkBa upregulation and IKK inhibition Jiang et al, 2002
    Cysteamine      IkBa upregulation and RelA donsregulation Ozaki et al, 2007
    C5a      IkBa upregulation Riedemann et al, 2003
    Down Syndrome candidate region 1 protein       IkBa upregulation Kim et al, 2006
    Glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisone, methylprednisolone)       IkBa upregulation Auphan et al, 1995; Brostjan et al, 1996; Ray & Prefontaine, 1994; Scheinman et al, 1995; Fong et al, 2007
    IL-10 IkBa upregulation Ehrlich et al, 1998; Lentsch et al, 1997; Shames et al, 1998; Voboril & Weberova-Voborilova, 2007
    IL-13 IkBa upregulation Ehrlich et al, 1998; Lentsch et al, 1997; Manna & Aggarwal, 1998
    IL-11 IKKa; IkBa,IkBb upregulation Trepicchio & Dorner, 1998; Lgssiar et al, 2004
    alpha-pinene IkBa upregulation Zhou et al, 2004
    NEF (HIV-1) IkBa upregulation Qiao et al, 2006
    R-etodolac IkBa upregulation Neri et al, 2006
    SR141716 IkBa upregulation Malfitano et al, 2007
    Vitamin D IkBa upregulation Cohen-Lahav et al, 2006
    Fox1j IkBb upregulation Lin et al, 2004
    NSP1 (rotavirus) IkBa stabilizzation Sherry et al, 2009
    Dioxin RelA nuclear transport Ruby et al, 2002
    Agastache rugosa leaf extract Nuclear translocation Oh et al, 2005
    Alginic acid Nuclear translocation Jeong et al, 2006
    Apilimod Nuclear translocation Billich, 2007
    Astragaloside IV Nuclear translocation Zhang et al, 2003
    Atorvastatin Nuclear translocation Haloui et al, 2003
    Azacitidine Nuclear translocatin Khong et al, 2008
    Biophytum sensitivum  Nuclear translocation Guruvayoorappan & Kuttan, 2008
    Blue honeysuckle extract Nuclear translocation Jin et al, 2006
    BMD (N(1)-Benzyl-4-methylbenzene-1,2-diamine) Nuclear translocation Shin et al, 2005
    Buthus martensi Karsch extract Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2005
    Canine Distemper Virus Nuclear translocation Friess et al, 2005
    Carbaryl Nuclear translocation Shimomura-Shimizu et al, 2005
    Captopril Nuclear translocation He et al, 2007
    Carnostic acid Nuclear translocation Yu et al, 2008
    Celastrol Nuclear translocation Pinna et al, 2004
    alpha-chaconine Nuclear translocation Shih et al, 2007
    Chiisanoside RelA Nuclear translocation Won et al, 2005
    CHS 828 Nuclear translocation Hassan et al, 2006
    Corilagin Nuclear translocation Zhao et al, 2008
    CP-1158 Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2006
    Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) Nuclear translocation Chaicharoenpong et al, 2002; Katsman et al, 2007
    15-deoxyspergualin Nuclear translocation Hutchings et al, 2003
    Dipyridamole Nuclear translocation Weyrich et al, 2005
    Disulfiram Nuclear translocation Wang et al, 2003
    Diltiazem Nuclear translocation; induced translocation of p50 dimers Severa et al, 2005
    ERB-041 Nuclear translocation Xiu-Li et al, 2009
    Eriobotrya japonica triterpene acids RelA nuclear translocation Huang et al, 2007
    Eriocalyxin B Nuclear translocation/DNA binding Wang et al, 2006; Leung et al, 2006
    Estrogen enhanced transcript Nuclear translocation Jin et al, 2003
    Eutigoside C Nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2008
    FAK-related nonkinase Nuclear translocation Qin & Liu, 2006
    Florfenicol Nuclear translocation Zhang et al, 2008
    beta-funaltrexamine Nuclear translocation Davis et al, 2007
    Gangliosides Nuclear translocation Caldwell et al, 2003
    Glucorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) Nuclear translocation Riccardi et al, 2001
    Gymnocladus chinensis Baillon saponin Nuclear translocation Ma et al, 2007
    Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) extracts Nuclear translocation Kaszkin et al, 2004
    HDAC inhibitors sodium valproate, MS-275 RelB nuclear translocation; DNA binding Nencioni et al, 2007; Rao et al, 2007
    Heat shock protein 72 Nuclear translocation Meldrum et al, 2003
    Hirsutenone Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2005
    Huanglian Jiedu concocotion (geniposide, baicalin, berberine) Nuclear translocation Yuan et al, 2008
    Indole-3-carbinol Nuclear translocation Rahman & Sarkar, 2005
    JM34 (benzamide derivative) Nuclear translocation Carbonnelle et al, 2005
    JSH-23 (4-Methyl- -(3-phenyl-propyl)-benzene-1,2-diamine Nuclear translocation Shin et al, 2004
     KIOM-79 (combined plant extracts) Nuclear translocation Jeon et al, 2006
    KL-1156 (6-Hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-2-carboxylic acid phenylamide) Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2004; Kwak et al, 2007
    Leptomycin B (LMB) Nuclear translocation Rodriguez et al, 1999
    Levamisole Nuclear translocation Liu et al, 2004
    Lidamycin Nuclear translocation Chen et al, 2007
    Lycopus lucidus Turcz Nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2007
    Magnolia ovovata extract Nuclear translocation Tanaka et al, 2007
    MEB (2-(4-morpholynl) ethyl butyrate hydrochloride) Nuclear translocation Soderberg et al, 2004
    Methimazole Nuclear translocation Crescioli et al, 2007
    MNF (IkB-like Myxoma virus) Nuclear translocation Camus-Bouclainville et al, 2004
    Montelukast Nuclear translocation; p65 HAT acitvity Wu et al, 2006; Tahan et al, 2008
    NLS Cell permeable peptides (SN50) Nuclear translocation Lin et al, 1995
    NSA9 (prothrombin fragment) Nuclear translocation Kim et al, 2008
    2',8"-biapigenin RelA nuclear translocation Woo et al, 2006
    Divaricate saposhnikovia root RelA nuclear translocation Ge et al, 2007
    Fineleaf schizonepeta herb RelA nuclear translocation Ge et al, 2007
    Glimperide RelA nuclear translocation Jojima et al, 2008
    Nucling RelA nuclear translocation Liu et al, 2004
    o,o'-bismyristoyl thiamine disulfide (BMT) Nuclear translocation Shoji et al, 1998
    Oregonin  RelA nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2005
    1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose RelA nuclear translocation Kang et al, 2005
    Pergolide Nuclear translocation Uberti et al, 2004
    Platycodi radix extract RelA nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2004
    Phallacidin Nuclear translocation Papakonstanti & Strounaras, 2004
    Pimecrolimus Nuclear translocatin Buchau et al, 2008
    Piperine Nuclear translocation Pradeep & Kuttan, 2004
    Pitavastatin Nuclear translocation Wang et al, 2006
    PN-50 Nuclear translocation Letoha et al, 2005
    POP2 Nuclear translocation Bedoya et al, 2007
    Pravastatin Nuclear translocation Gu et al, 2007
    Probiotics RelA nuclear translocation Bai et al, 2004
    Propofol Nuclear translocation Jawan et al, 2008; He et al, 2008
    RelA peptides (P1 and P6) Nuclear translocation Takada et al, 2004
    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-alpha Nuclear translocation Migita et al, 2004
    Rhubarb aqueous extract RelA nuclear translocation  Moon et al, 2005; Liu et al, 2008
    Rolipram Nuclear translocation Sanchez et al, 2005; Ikezoe et al, 2004; Herve et al, 2008
    Salvia miltiorrhoza Bunge extract Nuclear translocation Ding et al, 2005
    SC236 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) Nuclear translocation Wong et al, 2003
    Selenomethionine Nuclear translocation Cherukuri et al, 2005
    Sorafenib Nuclear translocation Echeverria et al, 2009
    Cornuside RelA Nuclear translocation Kang et al, 2007
    ShenQi compound recipe RelA Nuclear translocation Zhang et al, 2006
    Sophorae radix extract Nuclear translocation Kwon et al, 2004
    Sopoongsan Nuclear translocation Na et al, 2005
    Sphondin (furanocoumarin derivative from Heracleum laciniatum) Nuclear translocation Yang et al, 2002
    TAT-SR-IkBa; MTS-SR-IkBa Nuclear translocation Blackwell et al, 2004; Mora et al, 2005
    Thymulin Nuclear translocation Dardenne et al, 2006
    Tongxinluo Supermicro Powder Nuclear translocation Wu et al, 2007; Bu et al, 2008
    Volatile anesthetic treatment Nuclear translocation Lee et al, 2004
    White currant Nuclear translocation Rajakangas et al, 2008
    Younggaechulgam-tang Nuclear translocation Shin et al, 2004
    ZUD protein Activation of NF-kB; binds p105/RelA Zhang et al, 2004
    ZAS3 protein RelA nuclear translocation; DNA competition Hong et al, 2003
    Clarithromycin nuclear expression Ichiyama et al, 2001
    Fluvastatin nuclear expression Azuma et al, 2004
    Leflunomide RelA nuclear expression   Yao et al, 2004
    RASSF1A gene overexpression RelA nuclear expression Deng et al, 2005
    VGX-1027 RelA nuclear expression Mangano et al, 2008
    oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (OXPAPC) RelA expression Li et al, 2004
    3C protease (Poliovirus) RelA expression (cleavage) Neznanov et al, 2005
    5F (from Pteri syeminpinnata L) RelA expression He et al, 2005
    AT514 (serratamolide) RelA expression Escobar-Diaz et al, 2005
    Sorbus commixta cortex (methanol extract) RelA expression Sohn et al, 2005
    Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide NF-kB expression Li et al, 2007
    Azithromycin NF-kB expression Zhang et al, 2007
    Cantharidin NF-kB expression He et al, 2005
    Cornus officinalis extract NF-kB expression Li et al, 2005
    Dan-shao-hua-xian NF-kB expression Wang & Cheng, 2008
    Gamboic acid NF-kB expression Wang et al, 2008
    Glycine NF-kB expression Laschke et al, 2007
    Korean mistletoe lectin NF-kB expression Khil et al, 2007
    Lycium seed oil NF-kB expression Jiang et al, 2007
    Meiduoluomi NF-kB expression Zhang et al, 2008
    Neomycin NF-kB expression Garcia-Trapero et al, 2004
    omapatrilat, enalapril, CGS 25462 NF-kB expression Pu et al, 2005
    Onconase (Ranpirnase) NF-kB expression Tsai et al, 2004
    Paeoniflorin NF-kB expression  Liu et al, 2006
    Pouterin RelA expression Boleti et al, 2008
    Rapamycin NF-kB expression Lawrence et al, 2004
    Sargassum hemiphyllum methanol extract NF-kB expression Na et al, 2005
    Shenfu NF-kB expression Zhang et al, 2005; Wang et al, 2008
    Tripterygium polyglycosides NF-kB expression Zhou et al, 2005
    Triflusal nuclear expression Acarin et al, 2000
    Zoledronic acid RelB, c-Rel expression Bringmann et al, 2007; Wypij et al, 2008
    Chlamydiae CT441 protease Cleaves RelA Lad et al, 2007, 2007a
    HSCO (hepatoma protein) Accelerates RelA nuclear export Higashitsuji et al, 2002
    Andrographolide Covlalent adduct with Cys-62 of p50 Xia et al, 2004; Wang et al, 2007
    Selencotyanates Covlalent adduct with Cys-62 of p50 Chen et al, 2007
    Bee venom (melittin) DNA binding by binding to p50 Park et al, 2004; Moon et al, 2007
    Ethyl pyruvate DNA binding by RelA thru Cys-38 Han et al, 2004
    Abies georgei extracts DNA binding Yang et al, 2008
    25-acetylcimigenol xylpoyranoside (from Black cohosh) DNA binding Qiu et al, 2007
    1'-acetoxychavicol acetate DNA binding Ito et al, 2005
    2-acetylaminofluorene DNA binding Kang et al, 2004; Jeon et al, 1999
    Actinodaphine (from Cinnamomum insularimontanum) DNA binding Hsieh et al, 2004
    Adiponectin DNA binding Ajuwon & Spurlock, 2004; Wu et al, 2007
    ADP ribosylation inhibitors (nicotinamide, 3-aminobenzamide) DNA binding Le Page et al, 1998
    AIM2 (Absent In Melanoma protein) overexpression DNA binding Chen et al, 2006
    Albaconol DNA bindng Liu et al, 2008
    Moderate alcohol intake DNA binding Mandrekar et al, 2006
    7-amino-4-methylcoumarin DNA binding Kurokawa et al, 2003
    Amrinone DNA binding Chanani et al, 2002
    Angelicae Gigantis Radix extract DNA binding Kil et al, 2008
    Angiopoietin-1 DNA binding Jeon et al, 2003
    Anthocyanins (soybean) DNA binding Kim et al, 2006; Karlsen et al, 2007
    Anti-Neu antibody + paclitaxel DNA binding Yin et al, 2007
    (S)-armepavine DNA binding Liu et al, 2007
    Arnica montana extract (sequiterpene lactones) DNA binding Kos et al, 2005
    Artemisinin DNA binding Aldieri et al, 2003; Wang et al, 2006
    Artepillin C DNA binding Paulino et al, 2008
    Artesunate DNA binding Li et al, 2008
    Arzanol DNA binding Appendino et al, 2007
    Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) DNA binding; IkBa upregulation Gerbes et al, 1998; Kiemer et al, 2002
    Atrovastat (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) DNA binding Bustos et al, 1998; Hernandez-Presa et al, 1998
    Avocado-soybean unsaponifiables DNA binding Gabay et al, 2007
    AvrA protein (Salmonella) DNA binding Collier-Hyams et al, 2002
    Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) DNA binding Suk et al, 2003
     Bambara groundnut (Vignea subterranean) DNA binding Na et al, 2004
    Benfotiamine (thiamine derivative) DNA binding Hammes et al, 2003
    beta-catenin DNA binding Deng et al, 2002
    beta-lapachone (a 1,2-naphthoquinone) DNA binding; IKKb Tzeng et al, 2003; Sumi & Kumagai, 2007
    Biliverdin DNA binding Yamashita et al, 2004
    Bisphenol A DNA binding Kim & Jeong, 2003
    Bitter groud DNA binding Kobori et al, 2008
    Bovine serum albumin DNA binding Zhang & Frei, 2002
    Brazilian green propolis DNA binding Bae et al, 2005; Paulino et al, 2006
    Bromelain DNA binding; proteolysis of TNF, IL-1 Hou et al, 2006; Huang et al, 2008; Chobotova et al, 2010
    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) (and increased intracellular calcium by ionomycin, UTP and thapsigargin) DNA binding Chen et al, 2002
    Calcitriol (1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) DNA binding Harant et al, 1998; Chung et al, 2007
    Campthothecin DNA binding Hentze et al, 2004
    Cancer bush (Sutherlandia frutescens) DNA binding Na et al, 2004
    Candesartan DNA binding Yu et al, 2007; 2007a
    Cannabidiol DNA binding Esposito et al, 2006
    Caprofen DNA binding Bryant et al, 2003
    Capsiate DNA binding Sancho et al, 2002
    Carbocisteine DNA binding Yasuda et al, 2006
    Catalposide (stem bark) DNA binding Oh et al, 2002
    Cat's claw bark (Uncaria tomentosa; Rubiaceae); Maca
    DNA binding Aguilar et al, 2002; Valerio & Gonzales, 2005
    CD43 overexpression DNA binding (RelA) Laos et al, 2004
    CDX2 DNA binding Mutoh et al, 2007
    Celecoxib and germcitabine DNA binding; nuclear translocation El-Rayes et al, 2004; Funakashi-Tago et al, 2008
    Changtai granule DNA binding Liu et al, 2007
    Cheongyeolsaseuptang DNA binding Kim et al, 2005
    Chitosan DNA binding Seo et al, 2003; Chen et la, 2008
    Chitooligosaccharides DNA binding Lin et al, 2006
    Cinnamaldehyde, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde DNA binding/IKK Reddy et al, 2004; Lee et al, 2005; Kim et al, 2007; Liao et al, 2008
    Chicory root (guaianolide 8-deoxylactucin) DNA binding Cavin et al, 2005
    Chlorophyllin DNA binding Yun et al, 2005
    Chondrotin sulfate from Styela clava tunic DNA binding Xu et al, 2008
    Chondrotin sulfate proteoglycan degradation product DNA binding; nuclear translocation Rolls et al, 2006; Jomphe et al, 2007
    Clarithromycin DNA binding Miyanohara et al, 2000
    Cloricromene DNA binding Ianaro et al, 2004
    CO-releasing molecules (CORM-2) DNA binding Sun et al, 2007
    Cocaethylene DNA binding Tacker et al, 2006
    Commerical peritoneal dialysis solution DNA binding Douvdevani et al, 1995
    Compounds K and Rh(2) (from Panax ginseng) DNA binding/IKK Park et al, 2005; Choi et al, 2007; Chang et al, 2007
    Cortex cinnamomi extract DNA binding Kwon et al, 2006
    CP Compound (6-Hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-2-carboxylic acid phenylamide) DNA binding Rak Min et al, 2005
    Cryptotanshinone DNA binding Zhou et al, 2005; Jeon et al, 2008
    Cyanoguanidine CHS 828 DNA binding Johanson et al, 2006
    Cytochalasin D DNA binding Kim et al, 2003
    DA-9201 (from black rice) DNA binding Lee et al, 2005
    Danshenshu (esp Salvionic acid B) DNA binding Jiang et al, 2001; Luo et al, 2008
    (kB site) Decoy oligonucleotides DNA binding Kupatt et al, 2002; Morishita et al, 1997
    Deoxypodophyllotoxin DNA binding Jin et al, 2008
    Diallyl trisulfide  DNA binding Zhu et al, 2007
    Diamide DNA binding Toledano & Leonard, 1991
    Diarylheptanoid 7-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one DNA binding Yadav et al, 2003
    alpha-difluoromethylornithine (polyamine depletion) DNA binding Facchini et al, 2005
    S-diclofenac (2-[92,6-dichlorphenyl-amino]benzeneacetic acid 4-[3H-1,2,dithiol-3-thione-5-y) pheny ester) DNA binding Li et al, 2007
    7,7'-dihydroxy bursehernin DNA binding Pokharel et al, 2006
    3,3'-diindolymethane DNA binding Kong et al, 2007; Rahman et al, 2007
    DIM/13C DNA binding Li et al, 2005
    Dimemorfan DNA binding Wang et al, 2008
    Diterpenoids from Isodon rubescens or Liverwort Jungermannia DNA binding Leung et al, 2005; Kondoh et al, 2005
    Docetaxel (Taxotere) DNA binding Banerjee et al, 2007
    Dohongsamultang DNA binding Kim et al, 2007
    DTD (4,10-dichloropyrido[5,6:4,5]thieno[3,2- d':3,2- d]-1, 2, 3-ditriazine) DNA binding Rioja et al, 2002
    Duchesnea indica extract DNA binding Zhao et al,  2008
    E1B (Adenovirus) DNA binding Limbourg et al, 1996
    E3330 (quinone derivative) DNA binding Hiramoto et al, 1998; Kimura et al, 1997
    Ellagic acid DNA binding Edderkaoui et al, 2008
    ent-kaurane diterpenoids (Croton tonkinensis leaves; Isodon excisus) DNA binding Giang et al, 2003; Hong et al, 2007
    Epinastine hydrochloride DNA binding Kanai et al, 2006
    Epoxyquinol A (fungal metabolite) DNA binding Li et al, 2002
    Ergosterol peroxide, ergosterol, cervisterol (from Canthaellus cibarius) DNA binding Kobori et al, 2006; Kim et al, 2008
    Erythromycin DNA binding/transactivation Ren et al, 2004; Desaki et al, 2004
    Evans Blue DNA binding Sharma et al, 2004
    Evodiamine DNA binding Choi et al, 2006
    Fenoldopam DNA binding Aravindan et al, 2006
    Fexofenadine hydrochloride DNA binding Asano et al, 2004
    Fentanyl DNA binding Liu et al, 2006
    Fibrates DNA binding Hirano et al, 2002
    Fish oil feeding DNA binding Fan et al, 2004; Ma et al, 2007
    FK778 DNA binding Zeyda et al, 2005
    FLN29 overexpression DNA binding Mashima et al, 2005
    FLICE-Like Inhibitory Protein (FLIP) DNA binding Bannerman et al, 2004
    Flunixin meglumine DNA binding Bryant et al, 2003
    Flurbiprofen DNA binding Fratelli et al, 2003
    Flutamide DNA binding Shimizu et al, 2007
    fMLP (bacterial peptide) DNA binding Eswarappa et al, 2008
    Folimycin DNA binding Park et al, 2004
    Fomes fomentarius methanol extracts DNA binding Park et al, 2004
    Fucoidan DNA binding Haneji et al, 2005
    G-120 (Ulmus davidiana Nakai glycoprotein) DNA binding; IkB increases Son et al, 2004; Lee et al, 2005
    Gallic acid DNA binding Kim et al, 2005
    Ganoderic acid DNA binding Jiang et al, 2008
    Ganoderma lucidum (fungal dried spores or fruting body) DNA binding Sliva et al, 2002
    Garcinol (fruit rind of Garcinia spp) DNA binding Hong et al, 2005
    Gax (homeobox protein) DNA binding Patel et al, 2005
    Geranylgeraniol DNA binding Espindola et al, 2005
    Geranylgeranylacetone DNA binding Hayakawa et al, 2007
    Ghrelin DNA binding Li et al, 2004
    Gigantol (Cymbidium georingii) DNA binding Won et al, 2006
    Gingyo-san DNA binding Yeh et al, 2007
    Ginkgolide B DNA binding Nie et al, 2004
    Ginseng saponin 20-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol DNA binding Choo et al, 2008
    Glycyrrhizin DNA binding Wang et al, 1998; Yuan et al, 2006
    H4/N5 (IkB-like proteins of Microplitis demolitor bracovirus) DNA binding Thoetkiattikul et al, 2005
    Halofuginone DNA binding Leiba et al, 2006
    Heat (fever-like) DNA binding Salanova et al, 2005
    Helenalin (sesquiterpene lactone) DNA binding Kim et al, 2005
    Hematein (plant compound) DNA binding Oh et al, 2001
    Heparin DNA binding Lee et al, 2007
    Herbal compound 861 DNA binding You et al, 2001
    Hesperetin DNA binding Kim et al, 2006
    HIV-1 Resistance Factor DNA binding Lesner et al, 2005
    Hottuynia cordata Thunb extract DNA binding Kim et al, 2007
    Hyaluronan DNA binding Yasuda & Nakamura, 2007
    Hydroxyethyl starch DNA binding Tian et al, 2003; Feng et al, 2006
    Hydroxyethylpuerarin DNA binding/Nucl Translocation Lou et al, 2004; 2007; Ding et al, 2007
    Hypercapnic acidosis DNA binding Chonghaile et al, 2005
    Hypericin DNA binding Bork et al, 1999
    Hyperosmolarity DNA binding Lang et al, 2003
    Hypothermia DNA binding Hassoun et al, 2003
    Hydroquinone (HQ) DNA binding Pyatt et al, 1998
    ICP27 (HSV-1) DNA binding Melchjorsen et al, 2006
    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) DNA binding Manna & Aggarwal, 1998; Voboril & Weberova-Voborilova, 2007
    IkB-like protein A238L (encoded by ASFV) DNA binding Powell et al, 1996; Revilla et al, 1998
    Ilimaquinone DNA binding Lu et al, 1996
    Indoxam DNA binding Sonaki et al, 2008
    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 DNA binding Williams et al, 2006
    Irisilidone DNA binding Park et al, 2006
    JSH-21 (N1-Benzyl-4-methylbenzene-1,2-diamine) DNA binding Min et al, 2004
    Kamebakaurin DNA binding Lee et al, 2002
    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K1 protein DNA binding Lee et al, 2002
    Ketamine DNA binding Sun et al, 2004; Yu et al, 2007
    KT-90 (morphine synthetic derivative) DNA binding Sueoka et al, 1998
    Lactobacillus fermentum phospholipid DNA binding Frick et al, 2007
    Lichochalcone E DNA binding Chang et al, 2007
    Lignin DNA bindin Mitsuhashi et al, 2007
    Linoleic acid DNA binding Zhao et al, 2005; Cui et al, 2006
    Lithospermi radix DNA binding Chung et al, 2005
    Lovastatin DNA binding Sun & Fernandes, 2003
    Lornoxicam DNA binding Yin et al, 2008
    Lucidenic acid DNA bindng Weng et al, 2007
    Macrolide antibiotics DNA binding Nguyen et al, 2002
    Malloapelta B DNA binding Van Luu et al, 2006
    Mediterranean plant extracts DNA binding Stalinska et al, 2005
    Mercaptopyrazine DNA binding Lim et al, 2004
    2-methoxyestradiol DNA binding;

    Transactivation

    Shimada et al, 2004; Takada et al, 2004
    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (Wasabi) DNA binding;

    Transactivation

    Uto et al, 2005
    Metals (chromium, cadmium, gold, lead, mercury, zinc, arsenic) DNA binding/IKK Shumilla et al, 1998; Yang et al, 1995; Zuscik et al, 2002; Momeny et al, 2009
    Mevinolin, 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) DNA binding Law et al, 1992
    Methylglyoxal DNA binding Laga et al,  2007
    Mirtazapine DNA binding Zhu et al,  2008
    Monomethylfumarate DNA binding Litjens et al, 2004
    Morphine DNA binding Liu et al, 2006; Lin et al, 2007
    Moutan cortex DNA binding Chung et al, 2007; Kim et al, 2007; Chun et al, 2007
    Moxifloxacin DNA binding Werber et al, 2005; Shalit et al, 2005
    Myricetin DNA binding Kang et al, 2005; Lee et al, 2007
    NDPP1 (CARD protein) DNA binding Zhang & Fu, 2002
    N-ethyl-maleimide (NEM) DNA binding Toledano & Leonard, 1991
    Naringen DNA binding Kanno et al, 2005
    Nicorandil DNA binding Katamura et al, 2005
    Nicotine DNA binding Sugano et al, 1998
    Nifedipine DNA binding Horiuchi et al, 2006; Tomita et al, 2008; Aoki et al, 2008
    Nitric oxide-donating aspirin DNA binding Kashfi & Rigas, 2005
    Nilvadipine DNA binding Iwasaki et al, 2005
    Nitrosoglutathione DNA binding Kuo et al, 2004; Khan et al, 2005
    NS1 (Influenza A) DNA binding Wang et al, 2000
    NS3/4A (Hepatitis C virus) DNA binding Karayiannis, 2005
    Extracts of Ochna macrocalyx bark DNA binding Tang et al, 2003
    Leucine-rich effector proteins of Salmonella & Shigella (SspH1 and IpaH9.8) DNA binding Haraga & Miller, 2003
    Oleic acid DNA binding Cui et al, 2006
    Mediterranean diet (virgin olive oil) DNA binding Perez-Martinez et al, 2007; Brunelleschi et al, 2007
    Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb extract DNA binding Zhao et al, 2007
    Omega-3 fatty acids DNA binding Sethi, 2002
    Orazipone DNA binding Sareila et al, 2007
    Oridonin (diterpenoid from Rabdosia rubescens) DNA binding Ikezoe et al, 2005
    p8 DNA binding Vasseur et al, 2004
       1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose DNA binding Oh et al, 2001
    p202a (interferon inducible protein) DNA binding by p65 and p50/p65; increases p50 Ma et al, 2003
    p21 (recombinant) DNA binding Khanna et al, 2005
    PC-SPES (8 herb mixture) DNA binding Ikezoe et al, 2003; 2006
    Panepoxydone DNA binding Erkel et al, 1996
    Peptide nucleic acid-DNA decoys DNA binding Penolazzi et al, 2004
    Pentoxifylline (1-(5'-oxohexyl) 3,7-dimetylxanthine, PTX) DNA binding Biswas et al, 1993; Wang et al, 1997; Ji et al, 2004
    Peptide YY DNA binding Vona-Davis et al, 2004
    Pepluanone DNA binding Corea et al, 2005
    Perindopril DNA binding Li et al, 2005
    Phellodendri cortex extract DNA binding Park et al, 2007
    6(5H)-phenanthridinone and benzamide DNA binding Chiarugi, 2002
    Phyllanthus amarus extracts DNA binding Kiemer et al, 2003
    Phylligenin (lignan, Forsythia koreana) DNA binding Lim et al, 2008
    Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis (bamboo) extract DNA binding Kim et al, 2007
    PIAS1 (protein inhibitor of activatated STAT1) RelA DNA binding Liu et al, 2005
    Pioglitazone (PPARgamma ligand) DNA binding Takagi et al, 2002; Xu et al, 2007; Xing et al, 2007
    Pirfenidone DNA binding Tsuchiya et al, 2004; Nakanishi et al, 2004
    Polyozellin DNA binding Jin et al, 2006
    Pregabalin; gabapentin DNA binding Park et al, 2008
    Prenylbisabolane 3 (from Croton eluteria Bennett) DNA binding Campagnuoloe et al, 2005
    Pro-opiomelanocortin DNA binding  Liu et al, 2005  
    Procyandin B2 DNA binding Mackenzie et al, 2008
    Prostaglandin E2 DNA binding and RelA nuclear translocation Min et al, 2002; Gomez et al, 2005
    Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) DNA binding Zhang et al, 2003
    PYPAF1 protein DNA binding Jeru et al, 2006
    Pyridine N-oxide derivatives DNA binding Stevens et al, 2006
    Pyrithione DNA binding Kim et al, 1999
    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides DNA binding Wurtz et al, 2006
    Quinadril (ACE inhibitor) DNA binding Bustos et al, 1998; Hernandez-Presa et al, 1998
    Quinic acid DNA binding Akesson et al, 2005
    Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) DNA binding Keller, 2004
    Rapomycin DNA binding Dichtl et al, 2005
    Raloxifene RelA DNA binding Olivier et al, 2006
    Raxofelast DNA binding Altavilla et al, 2003
    Reactive oxygen species DNA binding Yang et al, 2007
    Rebamipide DNA binding Hahm et al, 2003
    Red  and Siberian ginseng DNA binding Park et al, 2007; Lin et al, 2008
    Rhus verniciflua Stokes fruits 36 kDa glycoprotein/ phenolic fraction DNA binding Ko et al, 2005; Jung et al, 2006; Oh et al, 2006
    Ribavirin DNA binding Fiedler et al, 1996
    Rifamides DNA binding Pahlevan et al, 2002
    Ritonavir DNA binding Ikezoe et al, 2004
    RNA aptamer to NF-kB DNA binding Mi et al, 2007; Wurster et al, 2009
    Rosiglitazone DNA binding Gruden et al, 2005
    Roxithromycin DNA binding Kim et al, 2004
    Rungia pectinata (linn.) Nees extract DNA binding Zhao et al, 2008
    Sanggenon C DNA binding Li et al, 2002
    Santonin diacetoxy acetal derivative DNA binding Kim et al, 2006
    Scapharca broughtonii factor DNA binding Kim et al, 2007
    Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) DNA binding Jin et al, 1997: Greene et al, 2004; Taggart et al, 2005
    Serotonin derivative (N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, SC) DNA binding Kawashima et al, 1998
    Sesamin (from sesame oil) DNA binding Jeng et al, 2005
    Shen-Fu DNA binding Qian et al, 2006
    Short chain fatty acids (sodium butyrate, sodium phenylbutyrate, sodium phenylacetate) DNA binding Park et al, 2007; Debierre-Grockiego et al, 2007; Kuefer et al, 2007; Tedelind et al, 2007
    Siah2 DNA binding Habelhah et al, 2002
    Silibinin DNA binding Schumann et al, 2003
    Simvastatin DNA binding/IkB phosphorylation Li et al, 2002; Kalyanasundaram et al, 2006; Lee et al, 2007
    Sinomenine DNA binding/nuclear translocation Chen et al, 2004; Zhao et al, 2007
    SIRT1 Deacetylase overexpression DNA binding Chen et al, 2005
    Siva-1 DNA binding Gudi et al, 2006
    SM-7368 (small molecule) DNA binding Lee et al, 2005
    Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate DNA binding Xu et al, 2008
    Solanum nigrum L. 150 kDa glycoprotein DNA binding Heo et al, 2004; Lee & Lim, 2006; Oh & Lim, 2006
    SP100030 DNA binding Moore-Carrasco et al, 2007
    Styrax japonica terpenes and lignans DNA binding Yun et al, 2006
    Suberosin DNA binding Chen et al, 2006
    Sulfasalazine DNA binding Egan & Sandborn, 1998
    SUN C8079 DNA binding Matsumori et al, 2004
    Surfactant protein A DNA binding Alcorn & Wright, 2003
    Sword brake fern extract DNA binding Wu et al, 2003
    (+) Syringaresinal-di-O-beta-d-glucoside DNA binding Yamazaki et al, 2007
    T-614 (a methanesulfoanilide anti-arthritis inhibitor) DNA binding Aikawa et al, 2002
    Talosin A DNA binding Hwang et al, 2009
    Tanacetum larvatum extract DNA binding Petrovic et al, 2003
    Tansinones (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Labiatae roots) DNA binding Choi et al, 2004
    Taurine + niacine DNA binding Giri, 2003; Kim & Kim, 2005
    Temozolomide DNA binding Yamini et al, 2007
    Tetramethylpyrazine DNA binding Cheng et al, 2006
    Tobacoo smoke DNA binding Zhong et al, 2006
    Tom1 (target of Myb-1) overexpression DNA binding  Yamakami & Yokosawa, 2004
    Thiazolidinedione MCC-555 DNA binding Kurebayashi et al, 2005; Ohga et al, 2006
    Trachelospermi caulis extract DNA binding Lee et al, 2007
    Transdominant p50 DNA binding Logeat et al, 1991
    Trichostatin A; 4-Me(2)N-BAVAH RelA DNA binding Hu & Colburn, 2005; Papeleu et al, 2007 
    Triclosan plus cetylpyridinium chloride DNA binding Kim et al, 2005
     Triptolide (PG490, extract of Chinese herb) DNA binding/transactivation Qiu et al, 1999; Kim et al, 2004; Yinjun et al, 2005; Jang et al, 2007; Chang et al, 2007; He et al, 2007; Liou et al, 2008
    Tyrphostin AG-126 DNA binding Moore et al, 2003
    UNBS1450 01 (from C procera) DNA binding Juncker et al, 2009
    Uranyl acetate  DNA binding Hartsock et al, 2007
    Ursolic acid DNA binding Hsu et al, 2004
    Uteroglobin DNA binding Mandal et al, 2004
    V,C proteins (Sendai virus) DNA binding Komatsu et al, 2004
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) DNA binding Oyama et al, 1998; Gabrilovich et al, 1998
    Verapamil DNA binding Li et al, 2006
    Wei-Pi-Tang-Hab-Wu-Ling-San extract DNA binding Jung et al, 2007; Seok et al, 2008
    Withaferin A DNA binding; IKKb; proteasome Mohan et al, 2004; Kaileh et al, 2007; Yang et al, 2007; Singh et al, 2007
    Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) DNA binding Lee et al, 2003; Piao et al, 2004; 
    Xanthohumol (a hops prenylflavonoid) DNA binding Colgate et al, 2006
    Xanthorrhizol DNA binding Chung et al, 2007
    Xylitol DNA binding Han et al, 2005
    Yan-gan-wan DNA binding Yang et al, 2005
    Yan Xin Qigong DNA binding Yan et al, 2007
    YC-1 DNA binding Lu et al, 2007
    Yin-Chen-Hao DNA binding Cai et al, 2006
    Yucca schidigera extract DNA binding Marzocco et al, 2004; Cheeke et al, 2006
    Zapotin (from Caimiroa edulis) DNA binding Maiti et al, 2007
    Overexpressed ZIP1 DNA binding Khadeer et al, 2005
    Zyflamend DNA binding Sandur et al, 2007
    Plant compound A (a phenyl aziridine precursor) DNA binding and transactivation De Bosscher et al, 2005
    L(pro) (Foot & Mouth Disease Virus) RelA degradation de Los Santos et al, 2007
    8-acetoxy-5-hydroxyumbelliprenin (from Asafetida) Transactivation  Appendino et al, 2006
    AMP-activated protein kinase Transactivation  Cacicedo et al, 2004
    APC0576 Transactivation  Yuzawa et al, 2003
     Artemisia sylvatica sesquiterpene lactones Transactivation (reporter assays)  Jin et al, 2004
      Artemisolide Transactivation; IKKb  Reddy et al, 2006; Kim et al, 2007
     Asteraceae sesquiterpene lactones (enhydrin, tetraludin A, repandins A, B, D, E) Transactivation  Ma et al, 2006
         BSASM (plant extract mixture) Transactivation (reporter assays)  Lee et al, 2005
     Bifodobacteria  Transactivation  Riedel et al, 2006
     Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) Transactivation  Samant et al, 2007
     Bupleurum fruticosum phenylpropanoids  Transactivation  Bremner et al, 2004
    Blueberry and berry mix (Optiberry) Transactivation  Atalay et al, 2003
    BZLF1 (EBV protein) Transactivation  Morrison et al, 2004
    Chromene derivatives Transactivation  Cheng et al, 2003
    D609 (phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C inhibitor) Transactivation  Bergmann et al, 1998
    Dehydroevodiamine Transactivation Noh et al, 2006
    4'-demethyl-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (lignan of Linum tauricum Willd. ssp. tauricum) Transactivation  Vailev et al, 2005
    5alpha-dihydrotestosterone Transactivation Itoh et al, 2007

    Ethyl 2-[(3-methyl-2,5-dioxo(3-pyrrolinyl))

    amino]-4-(trifluoromethyl)

    pyrimidine-5-carboxylate

    Transactivation Palanki et al, 2002
    Chemical library inhibitors Transactivation Lee et al, 2007
    CHFR RelA Transactivation Kashima et al, 2009
    Cycloprodigiosin hycrochloride  Transactivation Kamata et al, 2001
    DC-81 Transactivation Hu et al, 2008
    Dimethylfumarate (DMF) Nuclear translocation Loewe et al, 2002; Meili-Butz et al, 2008
    E1A (Adenovirus) Transactivation Cook et al, 2002
    Eckol/Dieckol (seaweed E stolonifera) Transactivation Joe et al, 2006
    Ethanol Transactivation Klei & Barchowsky, 2008
    FAD24 RelA transactivation Johmura et al, 2008
    Feijoa sellowiana Berg Fruit extract Transactivation Rossi et al, 2007
    Fructus Benincasae Recens extract Transactivation Kwon et al, 2003
    Gallotannins Transactivation Lee et al, 2007
    Glucocorticoids (dexametasone, prednisone, methylprednisolone) Transactivation and increases IkBa levels  Auphan et al, 1995; Brostjan et al, 1996; Ray & Prefontaine,1994; Scheinman et al, 1995 
    Glcodelin-A Transactivation Tee et al, 2008
    Gypenoside XLIX (from Gynostemma pentaphyllum) Transactivation (PPAR-alpha-dependent) Huang et al, 2006
    Hesperidin Transactivation Yeh et al, 2007
    Heterocyclic ring-substituted pyrimidines Transactivation Ha et al, 2007
    Histidine Transactivation Son et al, 2005
    HIV-1 protease inhibitors (nelfinavir, ritonavir, or saquinavir) Transactivation Equils et al, 2004
    4-Hydroxykobusin Transactivation Pokharel et al, 2007
    IE2p86 (CMV) Transactivation Gealy et al, 2007
    N-aminoimidazole derivatives (NR-818) Transactivation Stevens et al, 2007
    Kwei Ling Ko (Tortoise shell-Rhizome jelly) Transactivation Yip et al, 2005
    Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort root Transactivation Liu et al, 2005
    Low gravity Transactivation Boonyaratanakornkit et al, 2005
    Lys-Pro-Val tripeptide Transactivation Dalmasso et al, 2007
    LZAP Transactivation Wang et al, 2007
    Nobiletin Transactivation/DNA binding Murakami et al, 2005; Choi et al, 2007
    NRF (NF-kB repression factor) Transactivation Jianfeng et al, 2004
    Paeonol (from Mountain Cortx) Transactivation Ishiguro et al, 2006;Tsai et al, 2008
    Phenethylisothiocyanate Transactivation Gerhauser et al, 2003
    4-phenylcoumarins (from Marila pluricostata) Transactivation Bedoya et al, 2005
    Phomol Transactivation Weber et al, 2004
    Pimpinella oils Transactivation Tabanca et al, 2007
    PIAS3 Transactivation Jang et al, 2004
    Pranlukast Transactivation Ichiyama et al, 2003; Ishinaga et al, 2004
    Psychosine Transactivation Haq et al, 2003
    Pycnogenol Transactivation Matsumori et al, 2007
    Quinazolines Transactivation Tobe et al, 2003
    Resveratrol RelA nuclear localization and transactivation Manna et al, 2000; Pendurthi et al, 2002;; Kang et al, 2008
    RO31-8220 (PKC inhibitor) Transactivation Bergmann et al, 1998
    Saucerneol D and saucerneol E Transactivation Hwang et al, 2003
    SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) Transactivation Bergmann et al, 1998
    Selenium  Transactivation Christensen et al, 2007; Youn et al, 2008
    SH protein (Mumps virus) Transactivation Wilson et al, 2006
    Silica-ceramic Transactivation Huang et al, 2006
    Streptochlorin Transactivation Choi et al, 2007
    Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl)anthranilic acid] Transactivation Spiecker et al, 2002
    3,4,5-trimethoxy-4'-fluorochalcone Transactivation Rojas et al, 2003
    Uncaria tomentosum plant extract Transactivation Akesson et al, 2003
    LY294,002 Transactivation Sizemore et al, 1999
    Mesalamine RelA phosphorylation &  transactivation Egan et al, 1999
    Mesuol RelA phosphorylation &  transactivation Marquez et al, 2005
    Multivalent liposomal antibodies (trastuzumab and rituximab) RelA phosphorylation and transactivation Chiu et al, 2007
    PTX-B (pertussis toxin binding protein) RelA phosphorylation and transactivation Iordanskiy et al, 2002
    Pyrolae herba extract RelA phosphorylation and transactivation Lee et al, 2007
    9-aminoacridine (9AA) derivatives (including the antimalaria drug quinacrine) RelA phosphorylation and transactivation Gurova et al, 2005
    SK-126 RelA phosphorylation Kang et al, 2007
    Adenosine and cyclic AMP Transactivation Majumdar & Aggarwal, 2003; Minguet et al, 2004
    17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin Transactivation Rakitina et al, 2003
    6-aminoquinazoline derivatives Transactivation Tobe et al, 2003
    Luteolin p65 Transactivation Kim et al, 2003; Chen et al, 2007
    Manassantins A and B p65 Transactivation Lee et al, 2003; Son et al, 2005
    MYBBP1a p65 Transactivation Owen et al, 2006
    Paromyxovirus SH gene products Transactivation Wilson et al, 2006
    Qingkailing and Shuanghuanglian (Chinese medicinal preparations) Transactivation Chen et al, 2002
    Smilax bockii warb extract (flavenoids) Transactivation Xu et al, 2005
    Sphingosine-1-phosphate Transactivation Hughes et al, 2008
    Telithromycin Transactivatiion Leiva et al, 2008
    Tetracyclic A Transactivation (ROS production) Turbyville et al, 2005
    Tetrathiomolybdate Transactivation Pan et al, 2002
    Trilinolein Transactivation Liu et al, 2004
    Troglitazone Transactivation Ruan et al, 2003
    Valerenic acid/acetylvalerenolic acid Transactivation Jacobo-Herrera et al, 2006
    Witheringia solanacea leaf extracts Transactivation Jacobo-Herrera et al, 2006
    Wortmannin (fungal metabolite) Transactivation Reddy et al, 1997; Manna & Aggarwal, 2000
    Xia-Bai-San Transactivation Yeh et al, 2006
    Alpha-zearalenol Transactivation Li et al, 2005
    Antithrombin (III) RelA-p300 interaction; IkB phosphorylation Uchiba et al, 2004; Hagiwara et al, 2007
      Extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. NF-kB mRNA expression Leiro et al, 2004
    Rifampicin Glucocorticoid receptor modulation Yerramesetti et al, 2002
    Mangiferin Inhibition of RelA and RelB expression Leiro et al, 2004
    Shigella flexneri OspF protein Histone H3 phosphatase Arbibe et al, 2006