- About the Book

- Table of Contents

- Errata

- Instructor’s Aids

- Feedback to Authors

- Related Web Sites



Published in September 1999 by
Kluwer Academic Publishers,
848 pages.
Hardbound, ISBN 0-7923-8609-4


Second Edition available from Springer

769 pages.

Hardbound, ISBN 978-0-387-33332-8


About the authors:

Christos G. Cassandras, cgc AT bu.edu

Stephane Lafortune, stephane AT eecs.umich.edu


To order:

  Directly from Publisher

  From amazon.com

  From barnesandnoble.com





     The rapid evolution of computing, communication, and sensor technologies has brought about the proliferation of  "new" dynamic systems, mostly technological and often highly complex. Examples are all around us: computer and communication networks; automated manufacturing systems; air traffic control systems; and distributed software systems. The "activity" in these systems is governed by operational rules designed by humans; their dynamics are thereforecharacterized by asynchronous occurrences of discrete events. These features lend themselves to the term discrete event system for thiS class of dynamic systems.
     A substantial portion of this book is a revised version of Discrete Event Systems: Modeling and Performance Analysis (1993), written by the first author, which received the 1999 HAROLD CHESTNUT PRIZE awarded by the International Federation of Automatic Control for best control engineering textbook. This new expanded book is intended to be a comprehensive introduction to the field of discrete event systems, emphasizing breadth of coverage and accessibility of the material to readers with possibly different backgrounds. Its key feature is the emphasis placed on a unified modeling framework that transcends specific application areas and allows linking of the following topics in a coherent manner: language and automata theory, supervisory control, Petri net theory, (max,+) algebra, Markov chains and queuEing theory, discrete-event simulation, perturbation analysis, and concurrent estimation techniques. Until now, these topics had been treated in separate books or in research literature only.
     Introduction to Discrete Event Systems is written as a textbook for courses at the senior undergraduate level or the first-year graduate level. It will be of interest to students in a variety of disciplines where the study of discrete event systems is relevant: control, communications, computer engineering, computer science, manufacturing engineering, operations research, and industrial engineering.





1. Systems and Models
             System and Control Basics
             Discrete Event Systems
             Summary of System Classifications
             The Goals of System Theory
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References

2. Languages and Automata
             The Concepts of Languages and Automata
             Operations on Automata
             Finite-State Automata
             Analysis of Discrete-Event Systems
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References

3. Supervisory Control
             Feedback Control with Supervisors
             Specifications on Controlled System
             Dealing with Uncontrollability
             Dealing with Blocking
             Modular Control
             Dealing with Unobservability
             Decentralized Control
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References

4. Petri Nets
             Petri Net Basics
             Comparison of Petri Nets and Automata
             Analysis of Petri Nets
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References


5. Timed Models
             Timed Automata
             Timed Petri Nets
             Dioid Algebras
             Concluding Comments
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References

6. Stochastic Timed Automata
             Stochastic Process Basics
             Stochastic Clock Structures
             Stochastic Timed Automata
             The Generalized Semi-Markov Process
             The Poisson Counting Process
             Properties of the Poisson Process
             Automata with Poisson Clock Structure
             Extensions of the GSMP
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References

7. Markov Chains
             Discrete-Time Markov Chains
             Continuous-Time Markov Chains
             Birth-Death Chains
             Uniformization of Markov Chains
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References

8. Introduction to Queueing Theory
             Specification of Queueing Models
             Performance of a Queueing System
             Queueing System Dynamics
             Little's Law
             Simple Markovian Queueing Systems
             Markovian Queueing Networks
             Non-Markovian Queueing Systems
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References


9. Controlled Markov Chains
             Applying "Control" in Markov Chains
             Markov Decision Processes
             Solving Markov Decision Problems
             Control of Queuing Systems
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References

10.Introduction to Discrete-Event Simulation
             The Event Scheduling Scheme
             The Process-Oriented Simulation Scheme
             Discrete-Event Simulation Languages
             Random Number Generation
             Random Variate Generation
             Output Analysis
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References


11. Sensitivity Analysis & Concurrent Estimation
             Sample Functions and Their Derivatives
             Perturbation Analysis: Some Key Ideas
             PA of GI/G/ 1 Queuing Systems
             IPA for Stochastic Timed Automata
             Sensitivity Estimation Revisited
             Extensions of IPA
             Smoothed Perturbation Analysis (SPA)
             PA for Finite Parameter Changes
             Concurrent Estimation
             Summary & Problems
             Selected References

                 I. Review of Probability Theory
                 II. IPA Estimator




PDF file of Errata in the book: errata.pdf


If you find a typographical error or have any questions regarding any part of the book, please contact either author:

Christos G. Cassandras, cgc AT bu.edu

Stephane Lafortune, stephane AT eecs.umich.edu



- Solutions to all problems are available directly from the authors.

- Additional software, interactive web sites, animated presentations on special topics related to Discrete Event Systems are listed in Related Web Sites.



The authors would appreciate to hear your comments on the book, suggestions, specific questions, or any issue related to Discrete Event Systems. Please contact either author:

Christos G. Cassandras, cgc AT bu.edu

Stephane Lafortune, stephane AT eecs.umich.edu



- Several web sites may be accessed from http://people.bu.edu/cgc/Resources including a multimedia introduction to Discrete Event Systems and a number of interactive java applets.

- The library of routines UMDES-LIB may be downloaded from http://www.eecs.umics.edu/umdes

- For information on the software package CTCT visit http://www.control.utoronto.ca/DES

- The “World of Petri Nets” is located at